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REDACTED Page 79 of 190 according to Article 5 of their guiding principles.323 The GoV also gave them resources, such as radios, and cars, among other things to enable them to mobilize.324 As units owing allegiance to the GoV, they are under the GoV’s control and implement the GoV’s agenda of enforcing threats and repression.325 By the beginning of Chávez’s third term, experts stated that “it was no longer possible to speak of jurisdictional boundaries between civilian and military responsibilities because these had become too permeable.”326 The GoV uses these paramilitary groups under its control to enforce a dystopia whereby the repression is not only implemented by legal means but also by a criminal organization under the de facto control of the state. For instance, members of these pro government armed paramilitaries have been known to attack journalist, the media companies,327 opposition gathering,328 among others. In 2009, the IACHR reported that the groups called Colectivo La Piedrita and Unidad Popular Venezolana were involved in attacks against the television channel Globovisión, against political actors in Ateneo de Caracas, against the newspaper El Nuevo País, against the headquarters of the Social Christian Party also referred to as COPEI (Partido 323 UBCh. (n.d.) Decálogo de las Unidades de Batalla Hugo Chávez (UBCh). [Online] Available from: [Accessed 28 August, 2015] 324 IACHR. (2009) Democracy and Human Rights in Venezuela. para. 775 325 The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights states: “41. The Commission’s report also notes with extreme concern that in Venezuela, violent groups such as the Movimiento Tupamaro, Colectivo La Piedrita, Colectivo Alexis Vive, Unidad Popular Venezolana, and Grupo Carapaica are perpetrating acts of violence with the involvement or acquiescence of state agents. These groups have similar training to that of the police or the military, and they have taken control of underprivileged urban areas. The IACHR has received alarming information indicating that these violent groups maintain close relations with police forces and, on occasion, make use of police resources. The State has informed the Commission that irregular groups do exist on both sides in Venezuela. In the Commission’s view, the fact that the agencies responsible for preventing, investigating, and punishing such acts have failed to respond appropriately has created a situation of impunity surrounding violations of rights protected by the American Convention.” See: IACHR. (2009) Democracy and Human Rights in Venezuela. p. xvi. Moreover, on March, 5 2014 Maduro called the UBCh and Colectivos to figth against the “guarimbas.” See: Flores, A. (2014) Maduro Candelita que se prenda Candelita que se apaga. [Online Video] 5 March. Available from: [Accessed 28 August, 2015]; also see: EL NACIONAL. (2014) El jefe del Estado rechazó la intervención de la OEA en asuntos internos. El Nacional. [Online] 6 March. Available from: colectivos-UBCH-disolver-guarimbas_0_367163541.html [Accessed 28 August, 2015] 326 BRUNEAU and MATEI. (2013) p.129 327 To learn more about this groups attacks to journalist or communications media, read the chapter “Acts of physical aggression and threats presumably linked with the exercise of journalistic activity” in the IACHR report. See: IACHR. (2009) Democracy and Human Rights in Venezuela. p.140 328 According to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, “121.The Commission has received information indicating the existence of “a State policy oriented at repressing social protest in Venezuela through various means.” The information received by the Commission refers to an increase in the number of demonstrations suppressed, in the number of criminal proceedings initiated against persons for exercising their right to peaceful protest, and in the number of fatalities from violence in the context of demonstrations, both at the hands of the state security forces and of violent groups like the Colectivo La Piedrita, Alexis Vive, and Lina Ron and her followers.” IACHR. (2009) Democracy and Human Rights in Venezuela. p.29 Moreover, on March, 52014 Maduro called the UBCh and Colectivos to figth against the “guarimbas.”

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