Please activate JavaScript!
Please install Adobe Flash Player, click here for download

RED VZLA Urgent Request to the OTP-3

REDACTED Page 75 of 190 Most importantly, several high level public officials, Ministers and governors are members of the Bolivarian Militia, thereby facilitating the implementation of the GoV’s policies through their formal functions.306 (ii)Pro Government Armed Paramilitaries Chávez promoted the creation of diverse kinds of civil social organisations to allow the people to develop cultural, sports and political and other kinds of social initiatives and activities in their communities. However, over time he gradually promoted the militarisation of these groups to provide to the USPV additional support independent of the military. These social organisations who respond to the general denomination of colectivos received different names according to their specific function, including Comunas, Hugo Chávez Battle Units (Unidades de Batalla Hugo Chávez (commonly known as UBCh)), the Communal Council (consejos comunales), Bolivarian Circles (círculos bolivarianos) and the urban colectivos. The GoV under Chávez trained, armed and provided money, vehicles and resources to some hundred of individuals in Bolivarian Circles and to the urban colectivos,307 which became groups of pro government armed paramilitaries supporting the GoV308 with reported numbers reaching up to 70,000 individuals.309 306 N24. (2015) Maduro condecora a la Milicia Nacional Bolivariana en su día. Noticias 24. [Online] 13 April. Available from: condecoraciones-en-conmemoracion-del-dia-de-la-milicia-nacional-bolivariana/ [Accessed 28 August, 2015]; APORREA. (2015) Presidente Maduro entregó condecoraciones en conmemoración al 13 de Abril. Asamblea Popular Revolucionaria Americana. [Online] 13 April. Available from: [Accessed 28 August, 2015] 307 International Crisis Group defined colectivos as a term that “covers pro-government community organisations of various kinds, most non-violent, but it has come to be used for armed groups of the revolutionary left that have proliferated under chavista governments.” See: INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP. (2014) Venezuela: Dangerous Inertia. International Crisis Group. [Online] 23 September. Available from: caribbean/andes/venezuela/b031-venezuela-dangerous-inertia.aspx [Accessed 28 August, 2015] 308 INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP. (2011) Violence and Politics in Venezuela. International Crisis Group. [Online] 17 August. Available from: caribbean/andes/venezuela/038-violence-and-politics-in-venezuela.aspx [Accessed 28 August, 2015] p.17; See also the interviews with Natalia Brandler, Director of Groupe d’Études sur l’Amérique Latine (GEPAL), and Anthony Daquín ex government´s adviser. RUNRUN. (2014) El Nuevo Herald: Los colectivos, orden y terror chavista en Venezuela. Runrun. [Online] 1 January. Available from: venezuela.html [Accessed 28 August, 2015]; REPORTER24. (2014) COLECTIVOS: Los Tupamaros, el brazo armado del chavismo. Reporters 24. [Online] 13 February. Available from: [Accessed 28 August, 2015]; RUNRUN. (2014) ¿Qué son los Colectivos? Runrun. [Online] 9 February. Available from: [Accessed 28 August, 2015]; VON BERGEN, F. (2014) Los colectivos y el poder. El Nacional. [Online] 23 March.

Pages Overview