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Reproduced by Australian Atatürk Cultural Centre Inc. 10 based on a common institution. It is, therefore, necessary to have a special law governing education. The pertinent article in the Constitution reads as follows: "All types of education shall be free, subject to control and supervision by the government."13 With American Byzantine scholar Thomas Wittmore who came to Turkey on the occasion of the First Turkish Historical Congress Scientific Basis of Administration A nation faces catastrophe when it is sick and ailing. Salvation lies in diagnosing and curing the sickness in society. Recovery will be ensured if the cure is based on science and technology (...). There are factors, which build up, develop and promote the progress of nations. These comprise both intellectual forces and social forces (...). Those who aspire to save the country and the nation should have such qualities as a benevolent disposition, goodwill and a self-sacrificing spirit. These virtues, however, are not sufficient for detecting ailments in society, for curing them or for bringing about advances in society to deal with contemporary situations.14 Ideas and people who develop and spread ideas are the very forces that condition society. Thinking has a way of conditioning people's feelings and making them resistant to alien influences. This happens when thinking is gradually transformed

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