barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of 10 years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms i am pleased to support the black solicitors professor urwin and dr matthew gould how intersectional factors, including socio network (bsn) in this important work economic background play out in this. to identifying diversity trends across the legal sector. the courage to be uncomfortable by justine lutterodt improve our knowledge, we commissioned leeds university business school to look at the career pathways for certain groups and help when this league table began in 2006, it was us better understand the trends. we are also helped pave the way for readily available a groundbreaking initiative. since then, it has an inclusive culture is essential to successful diversity by sarah winship, shoosmiths diversity information and we now know much more about the barriers to entry and talking to solicitors and firms about their career choices in this ever changing legal market, recognising that not all solicitors aspire to partnership in large global firms. progression for some groups. the bsn’s diversity drives innovation analysis of the extensive data collected over we speak to denise nurse, halebury the past decade is a welcome contribution to our collective knowledge about diversity in the profession. the black solicitors network dlt speaks to bsn about its mission these issues are common across many professions and it might take some time to see a significant shift. in the meantime, there is still a lot we can do to make a difference and we welcome the excellent work that we have seen in 2012, we introduced our own diversity data from many law firms in promoting diversity collecting, so now law firms routinely tell us through a range of initiatives. the makeup of their workplace. we use this essential information to better understand firms are competing for the best candidates diversity in the profession and our online tool and increasingly aware that they need to allows firms to benchmark themselves against remove barriers to recruitment, retention and others in their sector. progression. the best recognise that a strong record on diversity gives them a competitive it is encouraging that new entrants to the advantage and is something that their clients solicitors profession are increasingly diverse, a expect and deserve. trend we are encouraging through our work to promote fairer access from all backgrounds. we are encouraging legal apprenticeships and have an equivalent means route for those gaining skills and experience through non-traditional routes. furthermore, our proposed solicitors qualifying examination would allow all would- be solicitors, regardless of their training route, league table diversity to show that they have reached the same high a 10-year demographic survey of the legal profession standard required for all solicitors. although we are encouraged by the gradual working towards an equal profession increase in the representation of women and bame solicitors in senior roles, we recognise there are still challenges to career progression for these groups in some sectors. the reasons for this are complex and we need to understand £45.00 | eleventh edition a report from the bsn black solicitors network
www.lawsociety.org.uk working for a more diverse profession we are committed to representing every member of the solicitors’ profession and to supporting the profession in its efforts to re/ect the society it serves. partnership working we work with bame groups and associations, consulting and campaigning on key issues, lead the ethnic minority lawyers division, sponsor headline events like bame career development networking events and celebrate occasions such as black history month. widening the talent pool the law society diversity access scheme supports promising entrants to the solicitors’ profession who face exceptional social, educational, financial or personal obstacles to qualification. it provides scholarships for the lpc course, mentoring with practising solicitors and work experience. find out more at www.lawsociety.org.uk/diversityaccessscheme the law society’s ‘solicitors for social mobility: the ambassadors’ was launched in october 2015. this was a new initiative to promote role models from non-traditional backgrounds who have achieved their ambitions and are willing to support young people coming through. so far we have selected 20 social mobility ambassadors and are currently recruiting our 2017 ambassadors. for more information, visit http://www.lawsociety.org.uk/ law-careers/becoming-a-solicitor/equality-and-diversity/social- mobility-ambassadors/ flagship initiative our diversity and lnclusion charter, developed with the society of asian lawyers and bt, is the flagship diversity initiative of the legal profession. it is an instantly recognisable public statement of commitment by its signatories and a framework for positive action across all strands of diversity. signatory firms represent over a third of the profession. does yours? read the charter at www.lawsociety.org.uk/diversitycharter
foreword by the hon. dame linda dobbs d.b.e. former high court judge league tables are living instruments. they change. there is movement. there is ebb and flow. importantly, as in the case of the diversity league tables (dlt), they hold organisations accountable by the scrutiny given to their activities. dlt covers five critical diversity strands – gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disabilities and social mobility to compile its tables, making for a comprehensive assessment of diversity in the legal profession. this year, following the 10th anniversary of the dlt, the black solicitors network (bsn) has re-evaluated the work of the dlt and has conducted an analysis of the data collected over the past 10 years. this initial study will form the basis of future research which will cover analysis of diversity and career progression in the legal profession. since the publication of the first diversity league table the profession has seen significant change in the profiles of those who work within it. there has been positive change, for which also disappointing. this has implications not the dlt can take much credit. having said least for the make-up of our judiciary. it is that, as the preliminary findings of the recent why this publication is such an important one research has shown, there is still a long way to and why i am pleased to see that bsn will be go. it is a familiar story – namely, that whilst the collaborating with the law society and relevant figures at the bottom re gender and ethnicity in academics to develop even more sophisticated particular, have improved significantly, the top means of monitoring and evaluating the echelons are sadly unrepresentative and change information. this is vital to change. well done is moving at a slow pace. social mobility is bsn and keep up the good work!
welcome from the black solicitors network (bsn) by paulette mastin, chair of bsn this year’s publication differs somewhat from previous editions of bsn’s diversity league table (dlt). historically, the dlt represented a ground-breaking piece of work that pre-dated all current cross-strand diversity monitoring initiatives and requirements, leading to greater transparency around diversity measures in the legal profession. after 10 successful years of the of entry level or trainee solicitors follows, in general, an encouragingly upward trajectory, diversity becomes less and less evident the higher one looks up the corporate ladder. this creates significant challenges, and i hope that you will take the time to read professor peter urwin and dr matthew gould’s analysis of what is a complex and challenging set of circumstances. dlt, bsn is re-evaluating the publication as a diversity survey. as a first, step, in conjunction i would like to thank everyone who has with the law society (dlt’s lead sponsor), we contributed to this publication, with a special have commissioned a review and analysis of the mention to our lead sponsor, the law society, datasets collected from firms over the 10-year prof urwin and dr gould whose detailed analysis period. the result is this publication which underpins this publication, and advertising reports on the barriers and drivers of diversity sponsors whose support enables us to produce across the core strands of gender, ethnicity this important piece of work. thanks also to and social mobility, with useful insights (and my colleagues at bsn, whose unstinting hard challenges) for those tasked with improving work and commitment give me confidence that, diversity in the sector. in time, we will see true equality and diversity across the legal profession. there is a perception that the past 10 years have seen steady improvement in gender and looking to the future, the next phase of bsn’s ethnic diversity within the legal profession. programme of research beckons which will in many ways, this is undoubtedly the case, encompass analysis of diversity and career but our findings paint a mixed picture. some progression, taking us beyond annual reporting firms have delivered notable improvements of diversity towards identifying and exploring in representation from one or more strands why the issues highlighted by this report exist. of diversity yet, at the same time, have seen we hope we can count on your support for this a corresponding reduction in representation innovative and important new research study into from other strands. similarly, while recruitment diversity in the profession.
6 | diversity league table 2017 contents 26 50 52 54 5 welcome from the black solicitors network (bsn) 9 welcome from the law society of england and wales 10 statement of support from legal services board 11 statement of support from solicitors regulation authority 13 barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of 10 years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms 13 15 19 about the findings 1. introduction 2. background to the study 26 the courage to be uncomfortable 26 28 30 a timely question three sources of discomfort from fear to opportunity editor in chief paulette mastin black solicitors network managing editor fiona marshall global diversity company head researcher professor peter urwin, centre for employment research, university of westminster design & production global diversity company publisher global diversity company on behalf of the black solicitors network, june 2017
bsn black solicitors network working towards an equal profession work with us... n research n publications n events n recruitment the black solicitors network is a not-for-proﬁt organisation. an inclusive rather than exclusive organisation, bsn attracts and welcomes members from across the cultural and diversity spectrum. www.blacksolicitorsnetwork.co.uk email@example.com
welcome from the law society of england and wales by robert bourns, president of the law society of england and wales the law society is committed to promoting diversity at all levels of the profession. we have been the principal sponsor of the black solicitors network (bsn) diversity league table (dlt) which provides detailed data on the performance of law firms and chambers, and a valuable analysis of the key issues affecting diversity in law. the law society is pleased to be the lead sponsor of a new bsn study commissioned to review and analyse the datasets collected from firms over the past 10 years of the dlt. this study focuses on aspects of change from a demographic perspective (across diversity strands of gender, ethnicity and social mobility) over this period and presents new and useful insights on the progress of diversity across the legal profession, taking account of extrinsic factors impacting the profession. together with our own research and the diversity intelligence we gather from our diversity & inclusion charter reporting exercise, the bsn publication will help to inform our work promoting and supporting diversity in the profession.
statement of support by dr. helen phillips, interim chair, legal services board the legal services board (lsb) is the independent body responsible for overseeing the regulation of legal services across england and wales. the lsb’s work supports the regulatory objective of encouraging a strong, independent, diverse and effective legal profession. i am very pleased, as the interim chair of the lsb, to offer our support for this 10 year demographic survey of the legal profession published by the black solicitors network (bsn). this is an important contribution to the debate about what needs to be done to increase the diversity of the legal profession. in our recent market evaluation research1, we found that there is increased diversity in the legal profession but progress remains slow. at entry level, the profession is broadly comparable to the wider population however, in more senior positions and particularly at the this revised guidance continues to support the level of partner within law firms, it becomes less excellent work started by the regulators to help representative and disproportionately white develop a more diverse profession. and male. diversity is an issue on which the lsb places when we first published statutory guidance on great emphasis. a profession as diverse as diversity it focused on data collection and its the people it serves is essential to secure the importance in encouraging a legal profession consumer and public interest. we believe that that is more representative of society. however, organisations such as the bsn have a vital role we have recently issued revised statutory in encouraging a legal profession that is more guidance which places a stronger focus on representative of society and we are pleased the importance of measureable outcomes to offer our support to this latest edition of the supported by regulatory action plans. diversity league table. 1 evaluation: changes in the legal services market 2006/07 - 2014/15 https://research.legalservicesboard.org.uk/news/latest-research-14
statement of support by paul philip, chief executive, solicitors regulation authority i am pleased to support the black solicitors network (bsn) in this important work identifying diversity trends across the legal sector. when this league table began in 2006, it was a groundbreaking initiative. since then, it has helped pave the way for readily available diversity information and we now know much more about the barriers to entry and progression for some groups. the bsn’s analysis of the extensive data collected over the past decade is a welcome contribution to our collective knowledge about diversity in the profession. in 2012, we introduced our own diversity data collecting, so now law firms routinely tell us the makeup of their workplace. we use this essential information to better understand there are still challenges to career progression diversity in the profession and our online tool for these groups in some sectors. the reasons allows firms to benchmark themselves against for this are complex and we need to understand others in their sector. it is encouraging that new entrants to the how intersectional factors, including socio economic background play out in this. solicitors profession are increasingly diverse, a these issues are common across many trend we are encouraging through our work to professions and it might take some time to see promote fairer access from all backgrounds. we a significant shift. in the meantime, there is still are encouraging legal apprenticeships and have a lot we can do to make a difference and we an equivalent means route for those gaining welcome the excellent work that we have seen skills and experience through non-traditional from many law firms in promoting diversity routes. furthermore, our proposed solicitors through a range of initiatives. qualifying examination would allow all would- be solicitors, regardless of their training route, firms are competing for the best candidates to show that they have reached the same high and increasingly aware that they need to standard required for all solicitors. remove barriers to recruitment, retention and although we are encouraged by the gradual record on diversity gives them a competitive increase in the representation of women and advantage and is something that their clients bame solicitors in senior roles, we recognise expect and deserve. progression. the best recognise that a strong
barriers and drivers of diversity | 13 barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of 10 years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms by prof peter urwin and dr matthew gould commissioned by the black solicitors network (bsn) about the findings gender and ethnic minority representation at sector, as we identify no significant impact junior levels of the legal profession are high, but of diversity policies and practices adopted attrition as one progresses up the professional by firms, on subsequent levels of gender ladder drive concerns over diversity at partner and ethnic diversity. worryingly, we find level – a pattern reflected across many uk firms with more extensive diversity policies professions. the diversity league table (dlt) are significantly more likely to be pursuing survey sample was first administered in the increasing recruitment from russell group summer of 2006, and we use data up to 2015. institutions. in addition, we identify a variety each year firms provide information on the of firm characteristics that are positive for one gender and ethnicity of partners, associates strand of diversity, but exactly the opposite for and trainees within the firm; together with the other strand – when considering the pattern additional information on diversity policies and of differences across firms according to core practices; and information on the percentage areas of practice, the findings are striking in of trainees recruited to the firm from russell this respect. one possible explanation is that group universities. we use this firm-level panel the more ‘international’ areas of practice have dataset to estimate multivariate regression higher levels of ethnic diversity, driven by a equations, taking a pooled approach to global recruitment focus, and a resultant higher estimation; separately modelling the proportion proportion of overseas non-white staff (who of (i) female and (ii) bame staff at (a) partner, are not ‘bame’ in their country of origin); whilst (b) associate and (c) trainee level in the firm. the ‘international’ nature of these areas is also the findings present a challenge to those a 24-7 culture, which may drive lower levels of tasked with improving diversity in the gender diversity. associated with longer, unsociable hours and
14 | diversity league table 2017
barriers and drivers of diversity | 15 barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of ten years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms by prof peter urwin and dr matthew gould 1. introduction and ethnic diversity at the most senior levels (see for instance, davies report, 2011; parker from 2006 to 2015, the bsn diversity league review committee, 2016; ball and brown, tables (dlt) have encouraged firms and 2016; mcgregor-smith review, 2017). studies chambers to promote diversity, by celebrating commissioned by other bodies, such as the organisations that achieve a high level of royal society investigation into diversity in diversity; and those that still have some way to stem, find similar problems in both public go, but have put in place a variety of initiatives and private sector institutions, with diversity to support diversity (including policies, at more junior levels of the profession not practices, support networks and other resource reflected at the top (wright et. al., 2014). commitments). over these 10 years, the dlt has played an important role in raising the issue of in section 2, we show how this stalling of diversity in the legal profession, and challenging growth in diversity across senior levels of the employers to do more. however, as the 2015 legal profession leads to diversity ‘pyramids’. dlt suggests in its ten-year review, “across both there are ‘good’ levels of representation at chambers and firms, the continued upward trainee solicitor level; we then see an amount of trend in gender and ethnic diversity amongst attrition take hold, as we move up to associate; senior staff is at a very slow pace”. until we get to the level of partner, where levels of female and black, asian and minority ethnic this lack of progress on diversity at senior (bame) representation drop substantially. levels of the profession is a problem across the pyramid is a relatively straightforward many sectors of the uk, not just within the representation of the challenge facing firms, but legal profession. in recent years, a variety of section 2 shows how even this simple pictorial reviews and reports have challenged business aid can provide insights, as it shows where the leaders to do more to ensure diversity at junior barriers to progression ‘bite’ for women and levels of the workplace translates into gender bame lawyers.
16 | diversity league table 2017 over the last 50 years, consideration of the differentiate between these possible relevant position of women and ethnic minorities in drivers/barriers, to identity exactly which uk workplaces has moved from a legislative ones ‘bite’ and when. if we consider the sort approach, with the sex discrimination act 1975 of quantitative evidence that has underpinned and race relations act 1976 attempting to historical developments in the equality debate, promote equality by tackling discrimination, evidence on diversity at the top of professions to an approach that attempts to promote and is a relatively new development. in most cases manage diversity, with an increasing focus it is still at the stage of describing the challenge on recognition and celebration of ‘difference’ that firms face, providing limited insight into the – taking hold from the early 1990s onwards1. possible reasons why the challenge remains. similarly, there has been some shift in the this is emphasised in the mcgregor-smith evidence-base underpinning equality and review (2017; page 1), which suggests “fixing diversity debates. for instance, since the sex this will involve a critical examination of every discrimination act of 1975, there has been stage of the process, from how individuals a focus on the wage gap between men and are recruited to how they are supported to women (see for instance, harkness, 1996; progress and fulfil their potential”. this is a manning and swaffield, 2008). however, the recognition that we do not currently have an increasing focus on gender and bame under- evidence-base that allows firms to understand representation at higher levels of corporate life, which policies work, and for whom. has led to new research evidence that details this lower level of representation (see for instance, within this evidence vacuum, two broad policy sealy, et. al. 2011; davies women on boards prescriptions have emerged that are almost review, 2015: de pril and roberts, 2016; ibid.). diametrically opposed. the first, prescribes a system of mandated quotas, which are not so what insights does this evidence-base widely popular with business leaders. davies provide, on the reasons for a lack of progress (2011) found “only 11% of consultation responses to the top of uk corporate life, for women in favour of a legislative quota regime” and the and ethnic minorities? consideration of the parker review committee (2016) suggest that evidence arising from qualitative investigations only, “a minority of those we spoke to made in the law profession and elsewhere (duff a case for stronger legislative or regulatory and webley, 2004; sommerlad, et. al., 2013; prompts to compel businesses to increase wright et. al., 2014; ball and brown, 2016; ethnic diversity in leadership”. in contrast, wilson and urwin, forthcoming 2017) suggests systems of mandatory quotas have become that a variety of factors could be relevant as increasingly popular on the continent, with drivers and barriers to career progression. five of the twelve largest european economies however, there is currently limited quantitative having mandatory quotas for female board evidence that allows us to accurately map membership. in the uk, companies are obliged the career trajectories of women and bame to report numbers of female directors and employees in different uk professions; and to senior managers in annual reports, but they are 1 the equality act of october 2010 had a number of new implications for firms and individuals. for instance, the act brought into law the concept of ‘associative discrimination’ and introduced new concepts of disability. however, in general the act harmonised existing law rather than making extensive changes to the legal framework, especially in the areas of gender and ethnicity.
barriers and drivers of diversity | 17 not mandated to achieve any targets and do the second set of hypothesised business not have to provide explanations in areas with benefits argue that diversity brings benefits low levels of diversity. of itself, even where we are not concerned with achieving representativeness. here the the second broad policy prescription is, in arguments suggest that creativity is enhanced some senses, not a prescription as such, but if we have a diversity of perspectives and rather a suggestion that the competitive less emphasis on conformity to past norms; pressures of the market will, of themselves, and similarly, problem-solving is enhanced promote diversity. the underlying message when teams can draw on a wider range of the diversity league tables has always of perspectives (irrespective of whether been that increasing diversity makes business this diversity does, or does not, achieve sense and this reflects an important aspect of ‘representativeness’). these benefits are the modern diversity discourse. this business hypothesised to accrue to the firm, whether case for diversity is a major component of or not the enhanced diversity is representative many recent reviews in this area. the parker of the external environment, and urwin et. review committee (2016) suggests, “our al. (2013) therefore consider this as a set of review highlights clear business reasons for ‘internal’ business benefits. increasing ethnic diversity on uk boards”, with “understanding and responding to cultural and demographic change [being] a major commercial imperative both in the uk and globally”. the arguments that underpin this business case can be split into two broad categories2. the first argues that firms which achieve a more ‘representative’ workforce, achieve competitive advantage over those that do not. firms recruit firms recruit from an increasingly diverse population, and if this is not reflected in their workforce, then they lose out on talent. from an increasingly diverse population, and if if we believe that these business case this is not reflected in their workforce, then they arguments have weight and agree with parker lose out on talent; if marketing departments are (2016) that, “every part of the business world… not diverse, they are unlikely to provide insights can see both the commercial and reputational across the full range of customer groups; advantages to making progress”, why has the graduates and other key groups increasingly trend rise in workplace diversity stalled? one expect representative [diverse] workplaces can view frustration with the apparent failure and are put off if this is not the case. firms of a ‘laissez faire’ business-case approach, increasingly realise that diversity is an integral driving calls for a more interventionist policy part of their brand and they will lose out if their of mandated quotas. however, as we shall see workforce does not reflect the ‘external’ world. in the next section, evidence on the impacts 2 interestingly parker (2016) distinguishes between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ diversity business benefits, in line with urwin et. al. (2013), but the categorisations do not correspond to each other. the two categories suggested here are in line with those adopted in urwin et. al. (2013).
18 | diversity league table 2017 arising from either of these approaches is legal profession. however, after 10 successful inconclusive and each side can claim support years, the black solicitors network has re- for their stance. many who make the case evaluated the publication as a diversity survey for quotas, argue that [almost by definition] and measure in consultation with the relevant they work, but evidence on the potential side representative and regulatory bodies. in effects is limited and resistance from business is conjunction with the law society of england substantial. of wales (dlt’s lead sponsor), this report has been commissioned by the bsn to review similarly, whilst parker (2016) and others and analyse the datasets collected from firms are convinced that business is convinced, over the past 10 years of the dlt and start the robust quantitative evidence supporting the process of new evidence creation. hypothesised business cases for diversity, is similarly limited (urwin et. al., 2013). as the study focuses on aspects of change from we shall see in the remainder of this study, a demographic perspective (across diversity the approach being proposed in the uk is strands of gender, ethnicity and to a lesser something of a half-way house between these extent social mobility3) over this period, and two extremes, with businesses signing up to presents new insights on the progress of [non-binding] targets, backed by business-case diversity across firms in the legal profession. arguments. however, this still leaves firms with we apply a multivariate [regression] approach little quantitative evidence on what works in to the historical firm-level data, to see what effectively promoting diversity, and our study lessons can be learned; gaining some idea of marks an important step in overcoming this the factors that are most closely associated dearth of quantitative evidence. with successful growth in diversity at various at both the most senior and the most junior level of the profession within firms, we observe an increase in the proportion of bame staff. levels of the profession within firms. for instance, from 2010 the dlt survey questioned firms on their diversity policies and practices, creating a composite policy indicator. we use this data to identify whether firms with higher policy scores earlier in our period of analysis, are subsequently associated with higher levels of diversity. we identify whether a focus on recruitment of trainees from oxbridge and russell group universities, is associated with levels of gender and ethnic diversity at differing levels of seniority within the firm; and we also at its inception in 2006, the dlt represented a have indicators of the firm’s core areas of ground-breaking piece of work that pre-dated practice. all current cross-strand diversity monitoring initiatives and requirements, leading to greater this is very much a first step, taking us beyond transparency around diversity measures in the annual reporting of diversity issues (via the 3 as captured in the question that asks firms for the proportion of trainees they have recruited from oxbridge and russell group universities.
barriers and drivers of diversity | 19 traditional dlt and other surveys) towards for concern. there has been some improvement identifying and exploring why such issues in absolute levels of representation at different exist. one can argue over the relative merits levels of the profession, but the rate of attrition of quotas, compared to a more laissez faire for women and ethnic minorities has shown business-case approach, but ultimately policy only limited improvement. must be matched to a diagnosis of why women and ethnic minorities are not getting to the specifically, if we compare the situation of top. various bodies in the profession have bame lawyers in figure 1 and figure 2, we have played an important role in raising awareness, clear evidence of improvement, as there is a rise flagging these problems, and encouraging in the proportion of partners who are from an firms and chambers to do more, including the ethnic minority background, from 3.7% to 8.9%5; solicitors regulation authority, the law society and this is also accompanied by an increase in and the legal services board. this report trainees who are from an ethnic minority from represents an important step in the process of 10.7% to 22.7%6. at both the most senior and generating new evidence, and final sections the most junior level of the profession within of the study consider the next steps that we firms, we observe an increase in the proportion would wish to take, focusing on individual-level of bame staff. data on lawyers, to track diversity and career progression. 2. background to the study however, the problem of attrition has clearly deteriorated during this period, when we consider movements between the positions of trainee and associate. in 2006, 10.7% of trainees were from a bame background and 9.8% of associates – a situation that gender and ethnic minority representation at is consistent with low levels of attrition for junior levels of the legal profession are high bame lawyers who attempt to make the move and could be considered ‘representative’, but between these levels of practice. however, high levels of attrition as one progresses up whilst the absolute proportion of bame lawyers the professional ladder drive concerns over at these levels of practice had increased by diversity at partner level. figure 1 [taken from 2015, we now have a situation where 22.7% the 2006 diversity league tables], and figure of trainees are bame, but this then reduces 2 [updated from the 2015 dlt], show how to only 13.9% of associates – a finding that the situation has changed over the years4. suggests many more bame trainees are not comparison of the two figures suggests some making it to associate level, than in the past. in limited improvements, but also continuing areas fact, for bame lawyers, figures 1 and 2 highlight 4 there are clearly issues of comparability between figure 1 and figure 2, but as table 10 of the appendix shows, there is a high degree of correspondence between law society figures [which capture the population of solicitors working in private practice and holding a practising certificate] and the dlt sample [which is based on returns from participating law firms]. the statistical analysis in section 4 is based on data collected as part of the dlt surveys. 5 this figure does not consider sole practitioners as ‘partner equivalents’ and so deviates somewhat from law society figures. 6 note that this figure is for 2013, as more recent law society publications do not cite the proportion of trainees who are bame, following changes to the way that ethnicity data is collected by the sra.
20 | diversity league table 2017 figure 1: diversity across levels of legal practice, 2006 partners 3.7% associates 9.8% trainees 10.7% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 source: diversity league tables, 2006 figure 2: diversity across levels of legal practice, 2015 partners 8.9% associates 13.9% trainees 22.7% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 source: the law society (2016), trends in the solicitors’ profession proportion of lawyers who are bame proportion of lawyers who are female proportion of lawyers who are bame proportion of lawyers who are female 28.2%60.6%62.8%22.1%55.0%56.4%
barriers and drivers of diversity | 21 an interesting change in the nature of attrition it is important to note that the proportions over recent years. figure 1 shows that it used presented in figures 1 and 2 only show a partial to be the step from associate to partner where picture of decreasing diversity as we move from ethnic diversity fell most steeply, but figure earlier, to later legal career stages. for instance, 2 now suggests that it is the movement from the proportion of law graduates who self-define trainee to associate where barriers to progress as bame is about 32% of the graduating cohort seem to ‘bite’. (see webley et. al., 2016). for bame would-be solicitors we therefore see that, at the training in contrast with the situation of bame contract stage, the bame population drops lawyers, figure 1 and 2 suggest that the fall from over 30% at the educational vocational in representation of female lawyers is still stage of training to 22.7% at the in-firm phase of most pronounced when considering the training (a point in the occupational ladder that move from associate to partner – in 2015 only is controlled, in the main, by law firms through 28.2% of partners were female, despite the their selection practices). fact this is also the case for 62.8% of trainees and 60.6% of associates. we can take some encouragement from the rise in the proportion of women who are partners [from 22.1% to 28.2%] over this decade, but a rise in the proportion of trainees who are women over the same period [from 56.4% to 62.8%] still leaves us with very high rates of attrition. it remains the case, that there is a particularly pronounced ‘last step barrier’ for women at the top of the profession, whilst the ‘pipeline’ does not seem to be particularly ‘leaky’ at earlier stages of career. in contrast to this aztec pyramid for women, we observe a much more egyptian pyramid for ethnic minority lawyers in recent years, as attrition is evident qualitative studies suggest that bame lawyers are concentrated within the less prestigious parts of the legal profession; they are proportionately more likely to be in sole or small firm practice than white solicitors. at all levels of the profession and, if anything, qualitative studies suggest that bame lawyers steepest between trainee and associate. this are concentrated within the less prestigious is in contrast to the figures for 2006, which parts of the legal profession7; they are suggest a situation for bame lawyers that proportionately more likely to be in sole or small used to be more like the situation for women, firm practice than white solicitors8; and this where the move to partner was where we saw may be due, in part, to the greater difficulties the greatest drop in diversity. they face as regards entry into, and progression 7 the ouseley report (2008) independent review into disproportionate regulatory outcomes for black and minority ethnic solicitors available at: http://www.sra.org.uk/ouseley at 7; law society (2010) ethnic diversity in law firms understanding the barriers london, the law society at 10. 8 see solicitors regulation authority diversity monitoring statistics 2013 https://www.sra.org.uk/sra/equality-diversity/diversity- monitoring/diversity-monitoring-2013.page.
22 | diversity league table 2017 within, the more lucrative and established parts prestigious institutions and its subsequent of the profession (webley, 2013). as readers will gender and ethnic diversity. previous studies note from the following statistical analysis, our indicate that social and educational background findings represent a challenge to some of these have a major role to play in the extent to findings regarding bame lawyers, obtained which aspiring lawyers succeed within the from qualitative investigation – though we must legal profession (shiner, 1994; 1999; 2000; be careful to note that the dlt sample likely sommerlad, 2008; tomlinson et. al., 2013). under-represents small firms and therefore our furthermore, the milburn ‘fair access to the findings are more applicable to the situation in professions’ report has recognized that this larger firms. stratification has a real impact on entry into professions, particularly into old professions the focus of this report is on gender and ethnic such as law9. diversity, but we also have some limited ability to consider the issue of social background – the law society (2016), paints a mixed picture via our indicator of the proportion of trainees of social background in the law profession, that a firm recruited in the last year from with a figure of 27.4% of solicitors previously russell group universities. in the 2014/2015 attending a fee-paying/independent school academic year, the proportion of students much higher than the 7% in the wider from disadvantaged backgrounds going to population, but lower than in other professions russell group universities stood at 20.8%; with – though comparisons must be considered the figure only 10% for oxbridge; compared with care, the suggestion is that just under to 37.5% of non-russell group universities. half of civil servants are from a fee-paying/ whilst we do not have an indicator of lawyers’ independent school background. unleashing social background, we do have an indicator aspiration was produced by the panel on fair of the proportion of trainees a firm recruited access to the professions and released in july from these more prestigious institutions in 2009. the chair, alan milburn, makes a clear the last year and we may reasonably expect a link between opportunities for progression for higher proportion of recruitment from these those from less advantaged socio-economic institutions to be closely linked to higher levels backgrounds and the growth in professional of social advantage. employment since the second world war; also making it clear that he interprets as webley et. al. (2016) have explored in their recent evidence as suggesting a fall in inter- work on barriers to entry into the profession, generational social mobility. there is a pronounced link between class and race in uk society (archer, 2011), and in our in terms of evidence surrounding the debates statistical analysis we attempt to shed further on gender and ethnic diversity, there are two light on this by considering the relationship issues we need to consider. first, it is important between a firm’s recruitment from these to note that (as suggested in the introduction 9 milburn, a. (2009) unleashing aspiration: the final report of the panel on fair access to the professions available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/227102/fair-access.pdf milburn, a. (2012) fair access to professional careers a progress report by the independent reviewer on social mobility and child poverty london: national archives available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/227102/fair-access.pdf
barriers and drivers of diversity | 23 to this report) the quantitative evidence gender diversity in top positions outperform supporting a business case for diversity is not sector averages. virtcom consulting10 suggest particularly robust, especially when we compare that greater race and gender diversity on it to the evidence on discrimination. when corporate boards is associated with a 16.2 per considering gender and ethnicity, studies of cent return over five years compared to lower discrimination have traditionally measured the economy-wide averages. extent of disadvantage in the form of a wage gap that cannot be explained by observable characteristics. much of the literature on ethnicity, particularly in the usa, focuses on the proportion of this gap that can be attributed to labour market and pre-labour-market discrimination (neal and johnson, 1996); with new studies using audit pair methods (bertrand and mullainathan, 2004) adding another dimension to the debate (heckman, 1998). a study commissioned by the department for business innovation and skills [now beis] and the government equalities office reviews the widely quoted research from mckinsey (desvaux et. al., 2007) suggests that european listed companies with greater gender diversity in top positions outperform sector averages. underlying academic evidence supporting the these findings suggest higher levels of business case for diversity (urwin et. al., 2013). gender diversity are correlated with a firm’s the authors conclude that, “studies appear to performance, but they do not confirm evidence have found evidence that firms have reaped of a causal relationship. for instance, we tend business benefits from equality and diversity, to find that younger companies (on average) but not all firms in all contexts at all times”. grow at faster rates than older companies the report emphasises that ‘context’ and ‘how (haltiwanger, jarmin and miranda, 2010; diversity is managed’ are “crucial in determining neumark et al., 2008), and smaller ones how equality and diversity brings about tend to have higher proportions of women business benefits”. the report underlines the (urwin, 2011; 2012). it could be that younger complexity involved in capturing clear ‘bottom (predominantly smaller) companies have line’ business benefits in a way that can be greater gender diversity and are also more robustly quantified. likely to grow. in this example, we would observe a correlation between gender diversity consider for instance, the substantial challenges and firm performance, but these two variables we face when considering evidence on the would not be directly related. they would only business benefits arising from increased be correlated with each other because both are diversity at board level. widely quoted research correlated with ‘firm age’. most of the current from mckinsey (desvaux et. al., 2007) suggests evidence on diversity at board level suffers from that european listed companies with greater this problem. 10 as cited in, government equalities office (2010), the case for equality – draft report for phases 1 & 2, april 2010.
24 | diversity league table 2017 consideration of the evidence on quotas also are better able to identify causal impacts of raises questions. ahern and dittmar (2011) test board composition on corporate risk-taking, for a direct link between gender diversity on and finds that board changes which increase boards and firm performance. they use the the representation of women are more closely norwegian 2003– 2008 policy change as a linked to increased levels of risk-taking. ‘natural experiment’. the introduction of quotas these results underline the complicated and in this period, which forced firms to have 40 potentially contingent nature of any findings in per cent women on their boards, left some pre- highly complicated workplace and economic quota firms with a longer road to travel than environments, but the lack of evidence here others (and in more technical language, the seems more due to the complicated nature authors use the pre-quota variation in female of what we are attempting to capture, rather board membership as an instrument). than serious questions over whether the more importantly, there are more women and ethnic minorities than ever before entering the legal profession, who have very little prospect of moving to the top. impacts arise. more importantly, as we have already suggested, various reviews seem to suggest that businesses are convinced. the 2015 european women on boards study (page 8) carried out in partnership with institutional shareholder services, suggests that, “both european companies and investors are increasingly convinced that a well-diversified board adds value to the company”. we must be careful when considering the evidence suggesting businesses wholly buy- in to the business case for diversity, as it is important to remember that the alternative ahern and dittmar (2011) find that firms being presented to them is often the imposition reporting the greatest increase in female board of mandatory quotas. essentially current membership reported falling stock-market recommendations across various reviews take valuations and deterioration in operating a middle ground, emphasising that companies performance. they also identify an increase in need to set clear targets for diversity at senior younger and less experienced boards. however, levels of the firm and give clear explanations this evidence is more a comment on the short- when these targets are not met - with the term impacts of a quota policy, than it is on the reasons put forward for achievement of the impacts of increasing gender diversity. whilst targets, emphasising that diversity is good for the introduction of quotas presents us with a business. natural experiment, it also changes the very nature of our question to one of, “what are for instance, the women on boards report the impacts of mandated (involuntary), rapid (2011) carried out by lord davies recommended increases in gender diversity?”. a voluntary 25% target to, “focus the attention of business and set out what ‘good looked like’ a deutsche bundesbank discussion paper in the five-year timeframe”. the subsequent (berger et. al., 2012) adopts methods that davies review (2015) suggested that this 25%
barriers and drivers of diversity | 25 target had been exceeded by the ftse 100 firms on the business case for diversity, it is and emphasised that there is no appetite for still the case that many have implemented mandatory quotas amongst business leaders. policies and practices that would be recognised in 2013, baroness hale of richmond lent her as diversity ‘good practice’, and still there support to the use of a ‘tie-breaker’ where has been little discernible change in levels of candidates from less well represented groups representation at the top of the profession. are favoured when candidates cannot be more importantly, there are more women and differentiated by ability11. this seems in line ethnic minorities than ever before entering the with the extended scope for lawful voluntary legal profession, who have very little prospect positive action created by the equality of moving to the top (when compared to their act 2010 (see for instance, barmes, 2009). white and/or male counterparts). this report both these approaches are something of a creates new evidence that allows a more compromise, between the laissez faire business- detailed quantitative understanding of the case approach, and the use of quotas (which problem and the reasons it continues to exist; become non-binding ‘targets’). and is a first crucial step in understanding why current policies may be having little impact. however, if there really is greater buy-in from 11 now introduced in relation to recruiting judges by the judicial appointments commission.
26 | diversity league table 2017 the courage to be uncomfortable by justine lutterodt frsa, director of the centre for synchronous leadership diversity can make us uncomfortable. this come at the expense of its national citizens. is certainly the case when you are used it is easy to point to prejudice, but this study to being in the majority, as researchers suggests that we must look further. from uc santa barbara and university of washington discovered. in their 2016 study1, this question is also more relevant than ever dover et al put young white men through a for the business world, where diversity is finally simulated job interview. when they learnt coming into fashion. in addition to having a that the company they were applying for was variety of employee networks, many companies pro-diversity, candidates expressed more now have paid positions dedicated to diversity concerns about unfair treatment, exhibited and inclusion (d&i) and have committed cardiovascular distress, and performed significant resources to unconscious bias markedly worse than their counterparts. it training. initiatives such as the 30% club and is tempting to assume that the discomfort the parker review have paved the way for these young men felt was due to prejudice. cross-sector change. additionally, the stonewall however, even candidates who endorsed the workplace equality index and various diversity tenets of diversity and inclusion exhibited awards have raised the profile of positive case these responses. so, what exactly were they examples. afraid of? a timely question this shift to a “pro-diversity” stance is reflected in the uk legal sector. thanks to pioneering efforts by the diversity league table and subsequent reports from the law society, the sector’s journey is well documented. over the the answer to this question is more relevant years, it appears that law firms have grown more than ever. we find ourselves in a polarised comfortable tracking their workplace diversity world – where one group’s articulation that and even reporting on it. most top 100 and large “black lives matter” causes other groups to feel law firms now have a d&i policy, along with a under attack, and where some perceive that d&i action plan, and monitor its implementation. the success of a country’s immigrants can only almost all have senior diversity champions in 1 dover, t., major, b., and kaiser, c. (2016). members of high-status groups are threatened by pro-diversity organizational messages. journal of experimental social psychology, vol. 62, 58-67.
28 | diversity league table 2017 place and three quarters report that they clearly in the majority still find the prospect of diversity communicate d&i objectives to staff.2 threatening, we would be unlikely to see it being prioritised at a management level. perhaps as a result of these efforts, the proportion of women and ethnic minorities joining the legal unfortunately, this is, in fact, the situation. sector at entry-level is now representative of acknowledgment is not translating into the british population. however, the steep drop- concrete objectives. although 85% of top 100 off as candidates progress to senior levels has and large law firms now analyse their workforce changed little over the past ten years. large firms diversity profile, only 31% set targets for change. fare the worst, with women and ethnic minorities less than half integrate an understanding of accounting for just 23% and 5% of partners, d&i issues into staff performance objectives respectively3. also disconcerting is the gender and only a courageous 17% of top 100 and pay gap, which is significantly higher in the legal large firms integrate it into performance sector (30%) relative to the norm for england and objectives for senior leaders. this is curious wales (19%). when they learnt that the company they were applying for was pro-diversity, candidates expressed more concerns about unfair treatment and performed markedly worse than their counterparts. given the plethora of evidence now available linking diverse management and diverse teams to improved business performance5. so, what indeed is the problem?6 three sources of discomfort as director of the centre for synchronous leadership, i have the opportunity to work with senior leaders and organisations across the uk. in the realm of diversity, i have supported leaders from a range of backgrounds in facing their discomfort and working it through. the despite the lack of concrete progress, top 100 discomfort is usually triggered by fear, and and large law firms have grown more confident tends to include a mix of legitimate concerns in signalling their pro-diversity stance to and unwarranted assumptions. it is only by prospective clients4. this raises questions about giving voice to the former that the latter lose whether this stance is held broadly or deeply their power, and the organisation is able to enough within the power structure of these move forward. firms. if, as in the aforementioned study, those 2 law society, diversity and inclusion charter: biennial review 2016. 3 law society, diversity proﬁle of the solicitor’s profession 2015. 4 in 2015, 91% reported that their practice demonstrates its d&i commitment to prospective clients, as compared with 64% in 2013. 5 e.g., mckinsey’s diversity matters report linking diverse boards to financial performance. 6 law society, diversity and inclusion charter: biennial review 2016.
the courage to be uncomfortable | 29 there are three fears that i commonly in addressing them. this type of authentic encounter: 1. fear of dilution self-reflection is often needed to undo the effects of stigmatisation and establish a culture of trust. and yet, it involves a level of vulnerability that most find terrifying – particularly leaders with reputations to it is interesting to note the concern maintain. about unfair treatment from dover et al’s study. often it is assumed that efforts to there is some merit to this fear. too often, promote diversity will result in lower quality conversations that involve clearing the air or candidates. underlying this is the belief that providing feedback are made more difficult diverse talent does not exist in an equivalent by a focus on finger-pointing and blame. form, or that broadening the criteria for the feelings of defensiveness, shame, and consideration will dilute its effectiveness. anxiety that this triggers can lead individuals this fear has some merit. those looking to to suppress biases that are at odds with meet targets can be guilty of putting the their self-concept or avoid discussing wrong person in the job, and the pipelines sensitive topics altogether. both approaches for senior leadership positions may indeed are counterproductive – blocking the appear sparse. opportunity for shared understanding and meaningful growth. however, the ultimate purpose of broadening criteria is to become more to overcome this, high levels of discerning, not less. this requires a higher psychological safety are needed along level of skill from those assessing candidates with an emphasis on the merits of learning, – in order to interpret a candidate’s as opposed to being right. using the track record, expertise, and indicators of terminology of renowned social psychologist potential across different social norms. in carol dweck, this requires leaders to adopt her groundbreaking study on innovation, a “growth” mindset rather than a “fixed” diversity and market growth, sylvia anne one, such that biases are viewed as clumsy hewlett highlights the importance of leaders approximations that need to be evolved having such translational ability (e.g., cultural rather than eradicated. fluency, generational savvy, gender smarts, etc.). she demonstrates that the presence of this quality in organisational leaders, in 3. fear of disruption conjunction with demographic diversity, correlates with market success. the process of becoming more diverse 2. fear of judgment can indeed be disruptive. it challenges our thinking about unspoken cultural norms, and triggers shifts in organisational power. once diverse teams are in place, there is it is easier to talk about statistics, policies, further disruption. team members must and other people’s bad behaviour than to make an effort to get to know people who acknowledge one’s own biases and seek help are different from them, establish trust,
30 | diversity league table 2017 and explore how to leverage each other’s is only by engaging with our discomfort and strengths. this takes time and requires a understanding what is behind it that new willingness to experiment. it also involves a possibility emerges. through exploring our level of risk. the steep drop-off as candidates progress to senior levels has changed little over the past ten years. fears of dilution, judgment, and disruption we come to appreciate the importance of translational ability, psychological safety, and a willingness to experiment. in the legal sector, each of these represents an opportunity for cultivating stronger leadership. pwc’s 2016 annual law firms survey report projects that successful firms in the future will require a workforce with a diverse range of skills, experience, and backgrounds. however, it is important that organisations additionally, it anticipates greater collaboration do not overplay the extent of this disruption between uk firms and those based in emerging or underplay the benefit it achieves. there is markets. in this context, firms led by partners evidence that we perceive teams as having capable of translating across social norms will greater conflict when we know that they are have a distinct competitive advantage. the diverse7. additionally, a 2009 study reported report also emphasises the on-going need for in personality and social psychology agility in responding to market changes. this bulletin found that groups including out- requires teams to have quick feedback loops group members judge their interactions to where there is sufficient psychological safety to be less effective than their homogenous challenge each other. finally, the report predicts counterparts and tend to be less confident in that firms using technology to drive innovation their final decisions, despite being twice as will “leapfrog the competition” with new likely to reach the correct solution8. business models. this level of change requires from fear to opportunity an on-going commitment to experimentation and a tolerance for taking measured risks. although the arguments for diversity are strong, engaging with it still requires courage. diversity can make us uncomfortable. it there is, after all, a risk associated with is tempting to respond by avoiding the exploring things that make us uncomfortable. subject entirely or championing diversity on less apparent but more troubling, however, is a superficial level. ironically, both scenarios the risk of not doing so. are likely to make us more uncomfortable. it 7 8 lount, r. et al (2015). biased perceptions of racially diverse teams and their consequences for resource support. organization science, vol 26 (5), 1351 – 1364. phillips, k., liljenquist, k., and neale, m. (2009). is the pain worth the gain? the advantages and liabilities of agreeing with socially distinct newcomers. personality and social psychology bulletin, vol 35 (3), 336-350.
the courage to be uncomfortable | 31
barriers and drivers of diversity | 33 barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of ten years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms by prof peter urwin and dr matthew gould 3. data and method international firms. since 2007 the sample frame for the survey has remained constant, the diversity league table (dlt) survey sample with the bulk of information continuing to be was first administered in the summer of 2006, collected during the summer months. the focus with an original focus on gender and ethnic of much of our statistical analysis is on firm data diversity across firms; and we use data up to collected between 2007 and 2015. the 2015 survey. each year, firms have been asked to [voluntarily] provide information on between 2006 and 2007 the number of firms the gender and ethnicity of partners, associates in the dlt sample grew from 53 to 81, but the and trainees within the firm; together with onset of recession then cut numbers in half additional information on diversity policies and and the 2008 study only included 41 firms practices; and for all years under analysis, we (including 27 uk top 100 and 7 international). have information on the percentage of trainees the 81 firms in 2007 included 63 uk top 100 recruited to the firm from the russell group and 12 international firms, amongst others. by of universities in the previous year. we link 2009 the number of firms participating in the this diversity information across years for all dlt had risen back to 50 (including 9 of the those firms for whom we have more than three city 10 firms), but subsequent years saw this years of data – allowing at most a two-year number fall further to only 36 in 2015 (and only gap between responses for any one firm. this 5 of the “top” city 10). over the 2011 and 2012 provides us with a panel dataset of firms, which years, the profession was focused on a fall in forms the focus of our analysis. “the number of solicitors working in private practice firms registered in england and wales… the 2006 dlt survey was targeted at the uk for the first time since records began in 1971”, top 100 law firms and focus of the 2007 study [reported in that year’s law society, trends in was expanded to include a range of other the solicitors’ profession report]. leading uk law firms, together with leading
34 | diversity league table 2017 in 2010, the dlt (which that year included 47 achieve 307 observations. that is, we have 51 firms) introduced the policy score, developed firms, observed over an average of 6 separate to better recognise the achievements and years each. table 1 gives some indication of commitment of those at an earlier stage in the the average values and variation around this diversity journey. this score was calculated from average for key variables used in the analysis. the firm responses to a variety of questions for instance, the average number of practising covering the following five areas of diversity certificate holders in firms included in our policy and practice: sample is approximately 400, but there is significant variation around this with a minimum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. monitoring of 32 and maximum of 1,082. leadership and internal policy/strategy external ‘face’ we use the data in table 1 to estimate a variety staff development & support of multivariate regression equations, taking a recruitment, promotion and retention pooled approach to estimation, rather than a fixed effects panel data model (as the latter these questions gauge the levels of effort and approach, whilst having methodological commitment of firms to the enhancement and advantages, would not allow us to estimate effective management of diversity. for instance, parameter values for explanatory variables that for diversity monitoring, scores are given for do not experience change over the period). we firms that collect information on each of the use this approach to estimate six regression diversity strands1. in leadership and internal equations, each separately modelling the policy/strategy, more marks are awarded for proportion of (i) female and (ii) bame staff firms that have a diversity leader/champion at (a) partner, (b) associate and (c) trainee at higher levels of seniority and recognition is level in the firm, in each year that we have given to those firms that have diversity goals observations. to reduce the possibility that our and targets included in the performance review regression equations suffer from some amount of managers. external face reflects formal of reverse causality and/or simultaneity, the public statements of diversity intent and the bulk of our covariates [x] enter the regression signing up to formal charters and frameworks; with the value we observe in the first year that whilst staff development and support covers the firm enters the dataset; and with these first issues such as employee networks, as well set of regression equations, we drop the first as the proportions of staff receiving formal year of observations from the regression [so diversity training. together with questions on that we are less likely to be using x values that recruitment, promotion and retention, this are contemporaneous to the y values being adds up to a maximum of 28 total points. modelled]. for instance, when trying to capture table 1 sets out descriptive statistics for the our policy indicator in year 1, has impacts on data under analysis. as we can see, when we diversity in years 2, 3 and onwards. collate all the information we have for firms that appear in the dlt more than three times, we we then estimate another six equations, the impact of policy, we wish to find out if 1 something that is now compulsory, given recent regulatory requirements, but only from c. 2012
barriers and drivers of diversity | 35 table 1: descriptive statistics of variables used in regression analysis variable no. of obs mean std. dev. proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year head office,city of london1 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) firm size change between 1st year [t=0] and last year [t=t] proportion of partners who are female proportion of associates who are female proportion of trainees who are female proportion of partners who are bame proportion of associates who are bame proportion of trainees who are bame policy score (in 1st year >= 2010) 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 307 65% 73% 28% 45% min 0% 0% max 100% 100% 10.79 27.28 -32.68 148.47 400.48 300.86 32.00 1082.00 54.79 170.61 -305.00 957.00 23% 54% 57% 6% 12% 18% 9% 9% 10% 7% 14% 9% 0% 34% 27% 0% 4% 6% 49% 77% 83% 100% 100% 46% 355.20 83.99 96.00 481.00 but this time with a dependent variable that staff at different levels of seniority, we utilise captures the trend change in each one of our all 307 firm-year observations and this allows six categories over the period of analysis. for us to identify a higher number of significant instance, in the case of female partners, we factors impacting diversity. when we estimate calculate the trend change over the period the trend change over the period we are only we observe the firm - giving us an overall able to use one set of data points for each indication for each firm, of whether the levels firm – reducing the number of observations to of gender diversity at partner level are rising, 51 and therefore reducing the extent to which falling or staying roughly constant. we then we identify significant variables (as with 14 model this trend as our dependent variable (in explanatory variables, we have less than 40 place of the proportions used in the first set of degrees of freedom2). regressions) to see what factors are associated with this trend in diversity at partner level over as with many studies that utilise regression the period. for the regression equations that analysis, it is important to understand the model the proportion of women and bame strengths and weaknesses of our approach. 2 ultimately, when we get to a point where there are as many observations as explanatory variables, estimation breaks down – as we get closer to this point, our regression has less validity.
36 | diversity league table 2017 first, a key strength is that we can be more confident when identifying relationships 4. analysis and findings between two variables, that they are not being section 4.1 discusses the results of various driven by other [confounding] factors; as regression equations that attempt to identify long as we are able to observe and control for the factors that are most closely associated these confounding factors in the regression with gender and ethnic diversity at different equation. for instance, in the following analysis levels of seniority within firms. section 4.2 then over 10 years of the dlt studies we have often raised questions over the relationship between diversity at lower levels of practice and partner level summarises the main findings arising from this discussion. 4.1. ols regression analysis table 2 sets out the results of an ordinary least squares (ols) regression equation, modelling those factors associated with the proportion of partners who are female in a firm, in each of the [average] 6 years that we observe the 51 firms in our sample. we wish to attempt a multivariate analysis, as it provides some clarity on the relative importance of key firm we shed some clear light on the relationship characteristics. for instance, in the most recent between ‘core practice area’ and diversity, dlt (2015) there is a suggestion that firms with holding constant firm-level characteristics such head offices in the city of london have fewer as size, location and policy score that may female lawyers at the level of partner, when all be correlated with areas of practice, and compared to firms with a head office located which might obscure our findings on the direct outside the city (including those located in the relationship between areas of practice and rest of london). however, it is also the case diversity. this is the advantage we have over that these city-located firms have an average qualitative investigation, which would not be size that is greater than that seen in the rest able to gain such insights and cannot identify of our sample. it could be that an important which factors are most important. however, component of the difference between city- anything that is missing from our regression located and other firms, is driven by this size could still be driving any correlation between difference – if diversity at a senior level is harder areas of practice and diversity, so we must to achieve in larger firms and city-located be careful in avoiding any suggestions that firms in our sample tend to be larger, this may relationships are ‘causal’ in nature. similarly, be driving the observation that city-based the use of a quantitative approach to analysis firms have lower levels of gender diversity at a means that we are not able to further dissect senior level. the use of a multivariate regression the bame group, to separately identify the approach allows us insight into whether these experiences of, for instance, black and asian lower levels of gender diversity are driven by lawyers. the city/other location differential, or the large/ small firm split, or possibly both.
barriers and drivers of diversity | 37 considering the findings from table 2, there is summary of what we can take from the analysis. no statistically significant relationship between the firm’s size [as represented by the number in table 2, we find no significant relationship of practising certificate holders in the first year between the proportion of female partners that we observe the firm] and the proportion in the firm and (i) the proportion of trainees of female partners. however, we do identify a recruited from russell group institutions in statistically significant3 [negative] impact on the the previous year; (ii) the policy score of the proportion of female partners, associated with firm in this first year; or (iii) the absolute size firms whose head office is in the city of london, difference between the first year and last year having controlled for firm-size differences and we observe the firm, as captured by change in a variety of other factors [listed in table 2]. the absolute number of practising certificate there is no significant correlation [relationship] holders. however, in addition to the significant between firm size and levels of gender diversity negative ‘city’ impact, we also identify a at the level of partner; but we do find a significant negative impact associated with the [significant] negative relationship between the trend change in number of practising certificate levels of gender diversity amongst partners and holders over the period4. the absolute change firms who have head offices in the city. in number of practising certificate holders enters our regression, so that we can capture in table 2 we can clearly identify all those any impacts that arise from simply having more factors that are significantly correlated with people appointed over the period [that we the levels of gender diversity at partner level, might expect to present more opportunities as they are highlighted in green, amber and for increasing diversity] as opposed to a slope red; representing significance at the 1%; 5% and that captures whether firm size is generally 10% level respectively. readers can see this increasing or decreasing over the period [which as representing different levels of confidence would capture any impacts that apply across in the strength of any correlations – green both small and large firms]. the suggestion suggests a high [99%] level of confidence that here is that firms on an upward size trajectory the correlation we identify is ‘significant’; amber experienced falling levels of gender diversity at a slightly lesser level of confidence [95%] and partner level over the period, but we must not we should be careful of reading too much place too much weight on this finding, as it is into findings that are highlighted in red [90% only significant at the 10% level. confidence] – they are worthy of comment, but need to be supported by findings in other over 10 years of the dlt studies we have often regression equations, to be worthy of note. the raised questions over the relationship between following discussions identify key significant diversity at lower levels of practice [associate and insignificant findings and then section 4.2 and trainee] and partner level within individual brings these together to provide an overall firms – we often have a situation where high 3 this report is for a non-specialist audience, so we attempt to avoid technical language. talk of a ‘statistically significant’ impact, refers to the situation where we reject the null hypothesis of parameter insignificance. when we suggest a ‘statistically insignificant’ impact, this refers to the situation where we are not able to reject the null hypothesis of parameter insignificance – in both cases we use language that is more accessible to non-technical readers. 4 all trend variables are calculated as the slope coefficient [α] in the ols equation [variable of interest] = α year + β.
38 | diversity league table 2017 table 2: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of partners who are female proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year 0.000 0.000 -0.890 0.377 0.000 0.000 head office,city of london1 -0.040 0.012 -3.280 0.001 -0.063 -0.016 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] -0.001 0.001 -1.830 0.069 -0.002 0.000 0.062 0.051 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.013 0.042 0.012 0.025 0.016 0.049 4.880 2.550 0.970 -0.270 1.050 3.290 2.110 4.410 3.810 3.510 0.000 0.000 0.012 0.334 0.786 0.294 0.001 0.036 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.999 0.180 0.030 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.006 0.030 0.047 0.024 -0.097 0.424 0.232 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.068 0.171 0.078 0.147 0.087 0.097 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) proportion female associates in the firm (at time=0) proportion female trainees in the firm (at time=0) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.302 0.131 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 0.043 0.089 0.054 0.097 0.056 0.000 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level levels of gender diversity at partner level gender diversity at partner level within firms. within a firm are not reflected at associate the regression equations suggest that firms or trainee level, and vice versa. the results of listing employment law (including pension and table 2 show a clear and positive relationship beneﬁts) as their core practice area, have the between the levels of gender diversity within highest levels of gender diversity at partner the firm at associate and trainee level and level; followed by real estate law (including subsequent levels of partner diversity. this is construction); then litigation and dispute very encouraging – whilst there still must be resolution and corporate law/mergers and concerns over the large amount of attrition acquisitions. however, whilst gender diversity at of female lawyers between associate and partner level in firms that list this final category partner level, firms achieving high levels of of practice as core, is significantly lower than gender diversity at these more junior levels, are the average, it is firms whose core area of transforming this into diversity at partner level. practice is banking and finance law that have particularly low levels of female representation finally, a key contribution of our analysis to at partner level. discussions of diversity in the legal profession, is the inclusion of the firm’s core practice area table 3 has the results of an ols regression, as an explanatory variable in our regression modelling factors associated with the equation. even having controlled for all the proportion of associates who are female in a factors listed above, we find that core practice firm, in each of the years that we observe the area is significantly correlated with levels of 51 firms in our sample. the findings suggest
barriers and drivers of diversity | 39 table 3: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of associates who are female proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year -0.001 0.000 -3.020 0.003 -0.001 0.000 head office,city of london1 -0.065 0.014 -4.700 0.000 -0.092 -0.038 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] -0.002 0.001 -2.280 0.024 -0.003 0.000 0.057 0.000 0.000 0.000 o.q15 0.049 0.014 0.029 o.q18 0.048 5.350 2.220 1.040 2.170 4.550 3.280 7.340 2.310 5.980 7.390 0.000 0.028 0.299 0.031 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.022 0.000 0.000 0.192 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.039 0.064 0.077 0.010 0.071 0.262 0.416 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.099 0.255 0.133 0.125 0.142 0.453 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) proportion female trainees in the firm (at time=0) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.304 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 0.069 0.159 0.105 0.067 0.107 0.358 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level a continuing negative impact of being a firm subsequent levels of gender diversity. we find with a city-located head office; and a positive that a higher proportion of trainees recruited relationship between the proportion of female from russell group universities in the previous trainees in the firm at the earliest point of year, is significantly correlated with lower levels analysis and subsequent levels of associate of gender diversity at associate level. gender diversity. we again find that firms on an upward size trajectory seem to experience once again, the firm’s core practice area is falling levels of gender diversity [this time at highly significant in explaining levels of gender associate level] and this provides more support diversity, this time at the level of associate; for a similar finding in table 2. and the same hierarchy applies, with firms listing employment law (including pension and unfortunately, we once again find no impact beneﬁts) as their core practice area, having the on gender diversity from firms having a higher highest levels of gender diversity at associate policy score at the earliest point we observe level; followed by real estate law (including them; but firms that experience a large absolute construction), litigation and dispute resolution; increase in the number of pc holders, are more then corporate law/mergers and acquisitions – likely to experience higher levels of gender with gender diversity at associate level in firms diversity at associate level, and larger firms (as that list the core practice area of banking and captured by the number of practising certificate finance law having particularly low levels of holders at t=0) also experience higher female representation.
40 | diversity league table 2017 table 4: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of trainees who are female proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year -0.001 0.000 -4.130 0.000 -0.002 -0.001 head office,city of london1 -0.063 0.019 -3.330 0.001 -0.100 -0.026 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] -0.002 0.001 -2.150 0.032 -0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.021 0.069 0.020 0.039 0.025 0.043 1.030 0.970 2.450 2.530 2.630 4.070 2.220 0.460 14.090 0.302 0.335 0.015 0.012 0.009 0.000 0.027 0.644 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.012 0.046 0.042 0.010 -0.038 0.519 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.094 0.315 0.121 0.164 0.061 0.687 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 0.053 0.181 0.081 0.087 0.012 0.603 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level table 4 presents ols regression results pension and beneﬁts) as their core practice from modelling factors associated with the area, still have the highest levels of gender proportion of trainees who are female in a diversity; but this time followed by litigation firm. once again there is a significant negative and dispute resolution; then corporate law/ impact of being a firm with a city-located head mergers and acquisitions – gender diversity at office and the higher the proportion of trainees trainee level in firms that list the core practice recruited from russell group institutions in area of banking and finance law still have the previous year, the lower levels of gender particularly low levels of female representation diversity at trainee level. firms that experience and the implication is that this is not a large absolute increase in numbers of pc significantly different to the levels of diversity at holders, are more likely to experience higher trainee level for real estate law. levels of gender diversity at trainee level; but the trend impact is once again negative. table 5 sets out the results of an ordinary least squares (ols) regression equation, modelling most of the indicators of a firm’s core practice those factors that are associated with the area are highly significant again, but with proportion of partners who are bame in a firm, some minor change in the hierarchy, when in each of the years that we observe the 51 considering gender diversity amongst trainees. firms in our sample. here we have confirmation firms listing employment law (including of our suggestion in various dlt publications
barriers and drivers of diversity | 41 table 5: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of partners who are bame proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year 0.000 0.000 1.020 0.311 0.000 0.001 head office,city of london1 0.021 0.012 1.660 0.098 -0.004 0.045 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] 0.001 0.001 1.110 0.268 -0.001 0.002 0.037 0.058 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.014 0.045 0.013 0.026 0.017 0.030 --0.340 4.050 -1.880 --0.960 -0.970 0.550 -1.560 -0.610 -0.610 -1.810 1.370 0.735 0.000 0.062 0.340 0.331 0.585 0.119 0.544 0.543 0.071 0.173 -0.085 0.120 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.020 -0.160 -0.035 -0.067 -0.063 -0.018 0.060 0.347 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.035 0.018 0.018 0.035 0.003 0.100 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) proportion bame associates in the firm (at time=0) proportion bame trainees in the firm (at time=0) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) -0.012 0.233 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 0.008 -0.071 -0.008 -0.016 -0.030 0.041 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level that, whilst firms with city-located head offices level across firms. even when considering core have lower levels of gender diversity, they have areas of practice, there is an indication that higher levels of ethnic diversity. table 5 confirms firms listing real estate law as their core area of that this is underpinned by a positive and practice are least likely to have ethnic diversity statistically significant relationship, having held at partner level, but this is only significant at constant additional firm-level characteristics the 10% level. however, it is interesting that all (though the result is only significant at the 10% the areas of practice that have more gender level, it is confirmed in subsequent tables). in diversity, are all the areas that have lesser ethnic addition to this, there is a positive relationship diversity - all the coefficients on our indicators between the proportion of bame trainees in the of practice in tables 2 to 4 are positive and firm in the first year and proportions of bame in table 5 they are all negative. whilst these partners in subsequent years of analysis. negative coefficients are not significant, they other than this, there is some indication that our lack of significance here, is the fact that larger firms have higher proportions of partners proportions of partners who are bame in firms who are bame, but this is only significant at is very small and even if there is some variation, the 10% level. perhaps the most striking finding it may not be pronounced enough to result in become so in table 6. one possible driver of here, is that we simply do not have much that significant correlations. explains the levels of ethnic diversity at partner
42 | diversity league table 2017 table 6: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of associates who are bame proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year 0.000 0.000 -1.770 0.079 -0.001 0.000 head office,city of london1 0.027 0.013 2.150 0.033 0.002 0.052 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] 0.000 0.001 0.420 0.678 -0.001 0.002 0.056 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.014 0.046 0.013 0.026 0.017 0.030 5.470 -1.580 1.760 -0.490 -1.690 -1.320 -2.980 -0.900 -1.900 1.890 0.000 0.116 0.080 0.621 0.093 0.189 0.003 0.368 0.058 0.061 0.197 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.051 -0.150 -0.066 -0.075 -0.065 -0.003 0.419 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.030 -0.013 0.028 0.001 0.117 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) proportion bame trainees in the firm (at time=0) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.308 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant -0.023 -0.060 -0.039 -0.024 -0.032 0.057 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level table 6 has the results of an ols regression, on ethnic diversity at associate level within modelling factors associated with the the firm from higher proportions of trainees proportion of associates who are bame in a recruited from russell group. however, these firm, in each of the years that we observe the 51 latter two findings are isolated to this table and firms in our sample; and here, because absolute only significant at the 10% level. proportions tend to be higher, we observe many more factors that are significantly finally, when considering core areas of practice, associated with diversity. there is a continuing we have clear support for the suggestion that positive and significant relationship between our findings on ethnic diversity are the mirror firms with city-located head offices and higher image of those for gender diversity. here, the levels of ethnic diversity; and the same is true suggestion is that firms listing any core area of of the relationship between the proportion practice outside of banking and finance law of bame trainees in the first year we observe have much lower proportions of bame lawyers the firm, and proportions of bame associates. at the level of associate. more specifically, the table 6 also identifies our first [and only] hierarchy here suggests that firms listing banking finding on the relationship between policy and finance law as their core practice area, have score and ethnic/gender diversity, with firms the highest levels of ethnic diversity amongst achieving a higher policy score in the first year, associates; followed by corporate law/mergers experiencing significantly higher proportions of and acquisitions; then real estate law (including bame lawyers at associate level in subsequent construction) and litigation and dispute years. in addition, we find a positive impact resolution; with firms listing employment law
barriers and drivers of diversity | 43 table 7: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of trainees who are bame proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.996 0.000 0.000 head office,city of london1 -0.005 0.017 -0.310 0.754 -0.039 0.028 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] 0.000 0.001 -0.120 0.902 -0.002 0.002 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant -0.033 -0.093 -0.058 -0.073 -0.017 0.205 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.019 0.062 0.018 0.035 0.023 0.039 -2.220 0.830 -0.710 -1.740 -1.510 -3.240 -2.080 -0.760 5.310 0.028 0.406 0.478 0.083 0.132 0.001 0.039 0.447 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.070 -0.215 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.004 0.028 -0.094 -0.023 -0.142 -0.062 -0.004 0.027 0.280 0.000 0.129 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level (including pension and beneﬁts) as their core we again have support for the suggestion that practice area having the lowest levels of ethnic our findings are the mirror image of those for diversity at associate level. gender diversity. the hierarchy suggests that firms listing banking and finance law as their table 7 presents ols regression results core practice area, have the highest levels of from modelling factors associated with the ethnic diversity amongst associates; followed proportion of trainees who are bame in a firm. by corporate law/mergers and acquisitions; unfortunately, we find firms achieving a higher then litigation and dispute resolution. firms policy score in the first year, do not experience listing employment law (including pension significantly higher proportions of bame and beneﬁts) or real estate law (including trainees in subsequent years and this suggests construction) as their core practice area seem we dismiss the finding in table 6 which was to have lower levels of ethnic diversity at only significant at the 10% level. outside of trainee level, but in this case the differences are core area of practice, the only other factor not statistically significant. that is statistically significant in explaining the proportion of trainees who are bame in the tables 11 and 12 of the appendix set out the firm, is the number of practising certificate findings from regression equations, estimated holders. to provide additional insights. as suggested in section 3, we re-estimate the equations when considering the relationship between considered in tables 2 to 7, using a dependent core areas of practice and trainee diversity, variable which captures the trend change in a
44 | diversity league table 2017 table 8: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with proportion of trainees recruited from russell group head office,city of london1 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) proportion female partners in the firm (at time=0) -0.015 0.124 0.006 10.215 0.006 0.023 0.032 23.720 -2.330 5.430 0.180 0.430 coefficient 3.403 standard error 4.202 t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] 0.810 0.419 -4.867 11.673 -0.127 0.206 -0.610 0.540 -0.532 0.279 proportion bame partners in the firm (at time=0) -26.460 46.089 -0.570 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 6.877 23.164 6.154 -8.485 9.230 20.700 4.640 14.791 4.809 9.318 5.708 10.917 1.480 1.570 1.280 -0.910 1.620 1.900 0.020 0.000 0.854 0.667 0.566 0.139 0.118 0.202 0.363 0.107 0.059 -0.028 -0.002 0.079 -0.058 0.168 0.070 -36.470 56.900 -117.174 64.253 -2.255 -5.948 -3.312 16.008 52.275 15.620 -26.824 9.853 -2.005 -0.787 20.465 42.186 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level firm’s proportion of female or bame lawyers insights, and tables 11 and 12 are included in at each level of seniority, over the years we the appendix as they provide some of the observe them; rather than just the year-on- few additions. table 11 identifies a positive year diversity proportions used for the models correlation between gender diversity at trainee in tables 2 to 7. this approach to analysis level and the subsequent trend growth in produces many fewer significant findings, not female partners over the period of analysis. least because the sample under analysis drops table 12 suggests that firms reporting real from 307 ﬁrm-year observations to 51 ﬁrm estate law (including construction) as their observations. in these regressions we have 14 core area of practice, have experienced a explanatory variables and so it is unlikely that downward trend in the proportion of trainees we would obtain any further insight [as we have who are from a bame background [and this is less than 40 degrees of freedom], unless the significantly different to the situation in other finding is exceptionally pronounced – and even areas of practice]. then, there are questions over whether it would be identified as significant. finally, tables 8 and 9 consider the factors that are significantly correlated with the proportion as a result, most of these additional regression of trainees recruited from russell group equations provide few significant additional universities. the suggestion in both tables is
barriers and drivers of diversity | 45 table 9: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with the trend proportion of trainees recruited from russell group head office,city of london1 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) coefficient -0.099 standard error 1.075 t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] -0.090 0.927 -2.216 2.017 -0.064 0.053 -1.210 0.228 -0.168 0.040 number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) -0.003 policy score for the firm (t=0) size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) proportion female partners in the firm (at time=0) proportion bame partners in the firm (at time=0) 0.012 0.011 -1.733 6.833 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant 2.492 15.622 4.761 0.841 -0.442 -3.877 0.002 0.006 0.008 6.071 11.796 1.187 3.785 1.231 2.385 1.461 2.794 -2.110 2.030 1.290 -0.290 0.580 2.100 4.130 3.870 0.350 -0.300 -1.390 0.036 0.043 0.199 0.775 0.563 0.037 0.000 0.000 0.725 0.762 0.166 -0.007 0.000 -0.006 -13.682 0.000 0.023 0.027 10.215 -16.384 30.049 0.155 8.171 2.338 -3.852 -3.317 -9.376 4.829 23.072 7.183 5.535 2.433 1.623 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level that larger firms [as captured by the number the reverse is true in tables 8 and 9. table 9 of practising certificate holders in the first year suggests that firms citing the core practice we observe the firm] are associated with lower area of employment law (including pension and proportions of recruits from the russell group beneﬁts) experience a particularly pronounced universities, when compared to smaller firms. trend increase in the proportion of trainees also, the higher the policy score of a firm, the recruited from russell group universities over higher the proportion of trainees recruited from the period of analysis. firms with core practice russell group institutions – an issue we return areas of litigation and dispute resolution or to in section 4.2 and the conclusion to this corporate law/mergers and acquisitions are paper. also more likely to be experiencing a relative increase in the proportion of trainees from it is interesting to note that, in contrast to the russell group universities, but this is not as majority of our analysis, where the modelling of pronounced as the area of employment law. proportions uncovers many more statistically these levels of significance are all relative the significant correlates than the analysis of situation in banking and finance law, which overall trends (not least because of the fall in experiences no relative trend increase over the numbers between the former and the latter); period.
46 | diversity league table 2017 4.2 summary of main findings bame partners, the implication is of a higher rate of churn between firms for these bame lawyers as might be expected, firms with higher levels who wish to progress. of trainee diversity at the start of the period, are likely to have significantly higher levels of our findings regarding the apparent efficacy diversity at more senior levels of practice in of diversity policy are mostly negative. the subsequent periods. this effect is consistent one positive finding is that a higher policy across all levels of seniority for women, with score (which is reflective of a firm that has a both trainee and associate diversity being variety of policies and practices in place to closely linked to higher gender diversity at promote diversity) is associated with higher partner level; and higher trainee diversity in levels of ethnic diversity at associate level, the firm being linked to subsequent associate but this is only significant at the 10% level and gender diversity [with a high level of statistical nowhere else is the diversity score predictive significance]. much of this finding also holds of subsequent levels of gender and ethnic when we consider ethnic diversity, with diversity within the firm. clearly it is possible the exception that the proportion of bame that firms facing more of a diversity challenge associates in a firm does not seem to be adopt the policies that are seen to promote predictive of the proportion of bame partners diversity and this may therefore drive an in the firm. this is interesting, as there is a association between high policy scores and clear relationship between high levels of ethnic lower levels of diversity in initial years. however, diversity amongst trainees and subsequent the lack of significance of our policy indicator associate/partner diversity; but this correlation in the regressions that model trend changes does not hold when we consider moves of in diversity over the period rules this out as bame lawyers from associate to partner within an explanation, as here we are modelling the the same firm. ‘diversity trajectory’ of firms, rather than their year-by-year proportions – those with higher we need to be careful when speculating on policy scores do not experience a significant the reasons for this, as the finding could be upward diversity trajectory. consistent with a number of explanations. however, when combined with the suggestion more worrying, is the fact that our most [in figures 1 and 2], that there has been a significant impact arising from the policy reduction in the rate of attrition of bame score, appears when we model the proportion lawyers between associate and partner level, it of trainees recruited from russell group suggests that bame associates are progressing, universities; with a higher policy score but those who wish to progress may be more associated with higher proportions of russell likely to move firm to achieve this ‘last step’ (a group trainees within the firm. this is something finding that is in line with tomlinson et. al., 2013). that exists, having controlled for a variety of for bame lawyers in figures 1 and 2, attrition firm-level characteristics and suggests that between associate and partner level is now firms implementing a variety of gender and less pronounced than it was 10 years ago. if we ethnic diversity initiatives, are more likely to combine this finding with the suggestion that be doing so in a context of russell group firms with high proportions of bame associates recruitment, rather than a wider spreading of do not necessarily have higher proportions of the recruitment net. at first, we may consider
barriers and drivers of diversity | 47 this possibly reflects the desire of firms with at associate and trainee level. the parameter high proportions of trainees recruited from the effects associated with this finding are small, russell group, to improve diversity and adopt but they are significant at the 1% level; and the appropriate policies and practices (raising small positive correlation we find between the their diversity score). however, the policy proportion of russell group recruits to trainee score is highly significant in the equation that and ethnic diversity at associate level is an models the trend in proportion of trainees isolated finding and only significant at the 10% from the russell group, suggesting that firms level. with a higher policy score early in the period of analysis are more likely to subsequently clearly our indicator of ‘city head office increase the proportion of trainees recruited location’ proxies a number of underlying from russell group institutions. this seems differences, but the regression models contradictory, as the more elite russell group estimated, rule out many of the key ones, such institutions admit lower proportions of minority as core area of practice and size of firm. there ethnic students and oxbridge has a particularly is clearly a challenge here, with these firms low proportion of female undergraduates, having significantly lower levels of gender compared to even the rest of the russell group. diversity at the levels of partner, associate and trainee; whilst the levels of ethnic diversity at the appendix to this study, sets out the partner and associate level are significantly questions that are answered by firms and higher, even after controlling for a range of the weights given to their various answers, additional differences. regarding the diversity policies and practices in place at the firm. clearly, the factors that before moving on to consider the influence we identify are perhaps more likely to be of core areas of practice on diversity, it is adopted by larger firms with more resources important to note the reason for inclusion and by firms that perceive they have ‘more of a trend value; an indicator of the absolute of a problem’. however, our analysis goes a level of change in numbers; and absolute long way to accommodate such potentially numbers at the start of the period of analysis, confounding factors and whilst the overall score when considering the numbers of practising captures a wide range of workplace approaches certificate holders in the firm. the number of [and could be argued to be somewhat practising certificate holders in the firm at the simplistic] the findings on policy impacts are start of our period of analysis, allows us to ask wholly negative. the question, does size matter? the answer is that, it seems to be positively related to gender the positive correlation between policy score diversity at associate level, ethnic diversity at and proportion of trainees recruited from partner level and the proportion of trainees russell group institutions is a real concern, who are bame; and, in contrast, negatively especially when taken alongside the apparent associated with the proportion of trainees lack of impacts associated with such policies; but also, because we find that firms with a higher proportion of russell group recruits to recruited from russell group universities. in addition, we have an indicator that captures trainee at the start of our period of analysis, change in the absolute number of practising have significantly lower levels of gender diversity certificate holders within the firm – asking, does
48 | diversity league table 2017 the absolute number of staff being recruited (or and litigation and dispute resolution; with firms reduced) impact on diversity over the period? listing employment law (including pension and this indicator is positively related to gender beneﬁts) as their core practice area having the diversity at associate and trainee level; but lowest levels of ethnic diversity. has no impact on ethnic diversity. finally, the indicator of trend growth/decline of practising one limitation of the analysis that becomes certificate holders over the period of analysis, apparent when considering these findings, is allows us to ask, if you are a firm on an upward our inability to differentiate between bame size trajectory, no matter what your starting solicitors who are british (or uk citizens), as point and what your absolute change in staff opposed to overseas. real estate law and numbers, does this matter? the findings suggest employment law are very domestically-focused, a negative correlation with levels of gender and would not likely attract many overseas diversity, which suggests that [having controlled practitioners – they are areas of law that vary for the absolute numbers and size of change significantly by jurisdiction. in contrast, areas over the period] an upward size trajectory is such as banking and finance law and corporate associated with falling gender diversity (a finding law are similar in many countries. the ethnic that cuts across large and small firms, but which diversity we see in these more ‘international’ is small in its absolute impact). areas may be a result of overseas non-white students (who are not ‘bame’ in their country finally, we identify a large and statistically of origin), rather than british bame solicitors. significant impact arising from the firm’s core this is not something that we can test for in area of practice and, as when we considered our analysis, but it is a reflection of findings in the impact of city-located head offices, the previous qualitative studies (op. cit.) and a key findings for gender and ethnic diversity are reason why the parker review focuses on the in direct opposition. we find that firms listing number of uk citizen directors of colour in its employment law (including pension and recommendation that each ftse 100 board beneﬁts) as their core practice area, have the should have at least one director of colour by highest levels of gender diversity at partner 2021. level; followed by real estate law (including construction); then litigation and dispute firms with core practice areas of litigation and resolution and corporate law/mergers and dispute resolution or corporate law/mergers acquisitions. firms whose core area of practice and acquisitions are also more likely to be is banking and finance law have particularly experiencing a rise in the proportion of trainees low levels of female representation. from russell group universities, but this is not as pronounced as the area of employment law. in contrast, firms listing any core area of practice these levels of significance are all relative to the outside of banking and finance law have situation in banking and finance law, which much lower proportions of bame lawyers. the experiences no trend increase over the period. hierarchy suggests that firms listing banking and this could be because banking and finance finance law as their core practice area, have law starts from a higher level, but the lack the highest levels of ethnic diversity; followed of significance of anything in our regression by corporate law/mergers and acquisitions; modelling subsequent proportions suggests then real estate law (including construction) otherwise.
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50 | diversity league table 2017 diversity drives innovation denise nurse, ceo & founder halebury winner of uk diversity legal awards 2016 for sme law firm diversity & inclusion initiative of the year denise nurse is ceo and co-founder of halebury, a leading newlaw firm. halebury provides a more streamlined, strategic and cost- effective approach to the delivery of legal services to general counsels and smes, and an alternative career path for senior in-house lawyers.
diversity drives innovation | 51 halebury’s innovative business model has mckinsey report providing hard data and disrupted the legal services market and ten evidence of the business case for diversity in years from inception several leading traditional business leadership is compelling but looking law firms now have their own flexible resourcing at humanity and the progression of society arms. as ceo denise focuses on leading the as a whole diversity matters more than ever. culture and growth of the business and on being a minority in a traditional, male, white, client service. halebury’s expertise in the tmt oxbridge world can be daunting, but it is not sector is acknowledged in the legal 500 where what others think that matters but what you it is in the third ranking in this category and think of yourself. your difference is what makes clients include bt, virgin media, bskyb, barclays you stand out and can be your advantage, but and expedia. it can also be very isolating and exhausting, always having to explain who you are to in a recent interview with the lawyer, denise your colleagues. for those in the position of nurse said, “we [halebury] are so committed privilege this is an opportunity to dare greatly to creating a different blueprint. i think we can and turn stated desires and goals into action help create a pathway for those joining the and results. profession that is more inclusive, that embraces different skills, rather than focusing on hourly my vision is for future minority lawyers to rates. changing the way lawyers are trained – i have a credible path to the highest levels of think we are going to be part of that”. the legal profession and to not feel that they have to change, hide or compromise who they denise is a diversity champion and a member of are to get there and for the current leaders the supplier executive committee of msduk, of the profession to seize this opportunity to an organisation created to improve diversity in be radical in their efforts for change, showing the supply chain of large corporates in the uk. the legal profession as leaders of cultural advancement and as more reflective of the denise shared with us her views on the society we serve.” importance of diversity for the legal profession and humanity. “diversity matters. i know this has been a central theme for bsn’s diversity league table and i think it is a message that needs to be repeated for a long time to come. the
52 | diversity league table 2017 an inclusive culture is essential to successful diversity by sarah winship, diversity, inclusion & wellbeing manager at shoosmiths many companies have invested much time and culture vital. we celebrate the unique skills and money into ensuring their workforce reflects the characteristics that individuals bring to their growing diversity of the communities they work firm. we want people to find common ground in. numerous studies have shown a positive in their divergences, i’m different like you not correlation between a diverse staff population i’m different to you. and organisational performance with diverse teams proving more creative, better at solving some fantastic initiatives have been launched problems and more effective at decision- in recent years to tackle the often close-minded making. corporate environment. mental health is high on the agenda and the time to change campaign however, simply achieving diversity among is doing great things to discard mental health employees will not automatically lead to taboo from the workplace and encourage success. discussion. there are a plethora of days, weeks and months such as black history month and to truly benefit from diversity a firm’s culture lgbt history month dedicated to celebration needs to be inclusive of all people. simply while providing a crucial platform to discuss recruiting more female, black and minority the ongoing challenges still experienced by ethnic and disabled staff is not proof of an many. our work with networks such as aspiring inclusive culture. retaining and developing solicitors and black solicitors network has seen a diverse staff population where everyone us engage with the underrepresented sections feels valued and respected is. attracting of society that aspire to a legal career. in doing and retaining the best staff is crucial to any so we have unleashed pools of undiscovered businesses success and providing an inclusive talent and potential that would prove an asset environment that nurtures and develops staff, to any firm. provides equal access to opportunities and allows them to deliver their full capacity while engagement in initiatives like these is essential. feeling valued, is essential in achieving this. time needs to be taken to show solidarity with location, engagement and differences with 12 offices across the uk, shoosmiths’ the messages, providing clear reassurance to your existing and potential workforce that we reflect these messages in our firm’s culture. wide ranging geographical office locations valuing differences is something that needs to are very demographically different. inevitably be evident from the outset. a legal career has this means our workforce consist of people traditionally been seen as restricted for those from all walks of life. this makes an inclusive from private education and elite universities.
the legal industry is taking considerable steps to change this. shoosmiths have dropped their grade criteria for candidates to ccc and any degree while cv’s are blind to help level the playing field. well-being but for who? in recent years firms have put a focus on employee well-being in an attempt to harness inclusivity. historically, well-being has centred on conventional health factors such as weight, nutrition and exercise. in reality well-being is subjective. what improves the working life of one employee won’t necessarily have the same impact on their colleague. individuals’ needs are different. a 5pm yoga session once a week might be a great stress relieving activity but is probably not so useful to the single parent who struggles to leave work on time to pick up their children from school. involving staff in the decision making process is massively important in providing them with well-being should be guided by the employees. a sense of ownership; ‘this is our initiative to asking staff what daily challenges they help us tackle our problems together’. we face and what would make the biggest identified this and set up an employee forum difference to them in overcoming these is with representatives from across the various the best starting point. shoosmiths carry out teams in each office acting as a spokesperson an annual staff satisfaction and well-being to communicate concerns raised by colleagues survey where employees can express their to the board. concerns anonymously, allowing us to look at the effectiveness of our well-being initiatives a multi-faceted issue, diversity is an area in tackling the current challenges being faced of constant improvement and therefore an by individuals. a series of focus groups at each inclusive culture is one that grows and flexes to office to discuss the outcome of the survey accommodate this demand. our consistently pinpoints priorities for the next 12 months and high diversity figures are proof of our inclusive gives a valuable steer on how initiatives should culture. it hasn’t been easy. any in-house d&i be sculpted. professional will tell you that it is a long process that requires careful consideration and planning if individuals feel supported by the firm in and changes aren’t instant or permanent and overcoming their daily challenges then we require constant care and attention. but the create an atmosphere of inclusion. no one is result of consistent challenging of what, for singled out because their obstacles aren’t those so long, was considered the norm has seen of the majority. shoosmiths become an employer of choice.
54 | diversity league table 2017 profile: segun osuntokun partner, berwin leighton paisner
profile: segun osuntokun | 55 i am a partner in blp’s litigation and corporate risk department and also head the firm’s africa group. i have been at blp since 2008. blp is a welcoming firm that prides itself on and demonstrates genuine collegiality and a down- to-earth ethos where everyone is encouraged to be their true selves. we want the best talent ‘we want the best talent from the broadest base to be attracted to and to stay at blp’ from the broadest base to be attracted to and contract applications from black candidates as to stay at blp. a result of these events, and in september 2016 we were thrilled to win “best diversity initiative” according to the law society sponsored at the lawyer business leadership awards. the diversity league table, the proportion of black event will be hosted again in november 2017. associates has remained static in the last three years at just 1.4%. it is pleasing to see a good the attendance alone at this event demonstrates number of law firms and chambers realise that that there is a real need for our profession to the diversity of the legal profession needs to continue to reach out to black and other ethnic improve. there is now a much more concerted minority individuals, and actively to encourage focus on diversity and that is what is needed. applications from talented candidates we may from blp’s perspective, the key to embracing currently be missing out on. we hope that by diversity is to address the culture of the firm; an this event and others in the pipeline, we will inclusive culture drives diversity not the other address and, eventually help redress the current way round. imbalance in black representation in the legal profession by openly airing the issues and alongside four other diversity and inclusion inspiring a new generation of black lawyers. task-groups, blp has a social inclusion and ethnicity task-group which i lead jointly my advice for any aspiring bame lawyers alongside another partner. one of our recent is not to see your race as an obstacle to initiatives was an event called “race for achievement – the profession is changing. have change” which we hosted twice last year. more confidence in your own abilities and be yourself. than 200 black students and graduates came your individuality and unique experiences to blp for the day to get a flavour of what a and insights are valuable assets, which you career in law could look like for them. we have should aim to convert into a career in the legal already seen a dramatic increase in training profession.
barriers and drivers of diversity | 57 barriers and drivers of diversity: analysis of ten years of the bsn dlt diversity survey sample of firms by prof peter urwin and dr matthew gould 5. conclusions and next steps the only situation where we identify a firm characteristic that is positive for one strand the findings of this report present a clear of diversity, but exactly the opposite for the challenge to those tasked with improving other strand – in fact, when considering the diversity in the sector, as we identify no pattern of differences across firms according to significant impact of diversity policies and core areas of practice, the findings are striking practices adopted by firms, on subsequent in this respect. when considering gender levels of [gender and ethnic] diversity. even diversity, we have the following hierarchy of more worrying, we find that firms with more core practice areas cited by the firm, from most extensive diversity policies are significantly gender-diverse to the least: (i) employment law more likely to be pursuing increasing (including pension and beneﬁts) (ii) real estate recruitment from russell group institutions. law (including construction); (iii) litigation and our study is not able to identify the social dispute resolution (iv) corporate law/mergers background of lawyers within firms, but this and acquisitions (v) banking and finance law. approach is likely to be worsening, rather when considering the extent of ethnic diversity, than improving, access to the professions for this list runs in exactly the opposite direction. those from disadvantaged backgrounds. in addition, we have strong evidence that a focus our findings do provide some encouragement of recruitment on russell group institutions for diversity practitioners, as firms with is closely related to lower levels of gender higher levels of ethnic and gender diversity diversity at various levels of the profession. at associate and trainee level experience significantly higher levels of partner diversity in addition, we find that firms with head offices in subsequent years. whilst rates of attrition located in the city have significantly higher across the sector are worryingly high, especially proportions of bame lawyers, but significantly when making this last step up to partner, in lower levels of female lawyers. this is not firms that are managing to increase diversity
58 | diversity league table 2017 at lower levels of practice, this is translating of these areas is also associated with longer, into diversity at the top. much of this finding unsociable hours and a 24-7 culture, which may holds for both ethnic and gender diversity, with drive lower levels of gender diversity. the exception that the proportion of bame associates in a firm does not seem predictive the mcgregor-smith review (2017) suggests of the proportion of bame partners in the firm. that, “the importance of effective mentoring, we need to be careful of reading too much into sponsorship, role models and networks this, but it is consistent with the suggestion that in delivering positive action needs to be bame associates may be more likely to move understood at all levels of an organisation” and firm to achieve promotion to the top level of the (on page 15 of the report] suggests “setting profession. “the importance of effective mentoring, sponsorship, role models and networks in delivering positive action needs to be understood at all levels of an organisation”. aspirational targets only works if you have robust data to both establish the baseline and measure the impact of positive action”. as we suggest, the analysis here is a first step, but our findings on the impact of these sorts of policies are not positive and there are many other firm-level characteristics that we find driving differences in diversity. the next step in generation of new evidence needs to dig down further into the sort of data described here, whilst also making more use of administrative datasets held by professional bodies. many commentators explain the lower levels any research investigation that moves forward of gender diversity at the most senior level, as from this point, must attempt to (i) track possibly resulting from choices over work-life the career trajectories of individuals in the balance and this is a valid hypothesis. however, profession and (ii) gain some insight from the there is no quantitative evidence to either refute historical trajectories of those who have left the or support this, and the conflicting patterns profession. administrative data on individual of gender and ethnic diversity we identify in lawyers who have been accepted to the role this study are hard to explain. why are all the over a number of years, allows analysis of the core practice areas where we see more gender specific career trajectories of women and ethnic diversity, associated with a correspondingly minorities who have made it to the top; women lower level of ethnic diversity? one possible and ethnic minorities who have remained at explanation is that, the more ‘international’ a more junior level of the profession; women areas of practice have higher levels of ethnic solicitors who have left the profession; and diversity, driven by a global recruitment focus, ethnic minority solicitors who have left the and a resultant higher proportion of overseas profession. non-white staff; whilst the ‘international’ nature
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62 | diversity league table 2017 appendix partners associates assistants trainees paralegals sole practitioners table 10: comparison of headline diversity indicators from the dlt survey sample and law society, in 2015 female pc holders bame pc holders dlt survey law society statistics* dlt survey law society statistics* 25.30% 28.22% 6.10% 8.47% 56.50% 60.60% 13.40% 13.90% 55.80% 69.10% - 62.80% - 41.30% 20.60% 15.70% - 22.7%** - 15.50% *position of solicitors working in private practice and holding a practising certificate as at 31 july 2015 nb/ the category of ’partners’ also includes partner equivalents (i.e. members, directors, shareholders) ** the law society have not published a breakdown of trainees by ethnicity in the ir latest three 2014 to 2016 publications. this figure of 22.7% is taken from the 2013 publication. source: the law society (2016) trend~ in the solicitors’ profession, 2015 table 11: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with the trend proportion of female partners proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year (t=0) 0.000 0.000 0.630 0.534 0.000 0.001 head office,city of london1 0.001 0.005 0.130 0.894 -0.010 0.011 coefficient standard error t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] 0.000 0.000 -0.400 0.688 -0.001 0.000 0.025 0.021 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.006 0.018 0.005 0.011 0.006 0.024 -0.840 2.440 1.150 -0.930 0.360 -0.290 0.410 -1.080 -0.930 0.140 -0.730 0.404 0.020 0.256 0.358 0.724 0.775 0.686 0.287 0.357 0.888 0.473 -0.072 0.008 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.013 -0.028 -0.017 -0.032 -0.011 -0.066 0.030 0.092 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.010 0.043 0.005 0.012 0.013 0.031 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) proportion female associates in the firm (at time=0) proportion female trainees in the firm (at time=0) number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) policy score for the firm (t=0) size d ifference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) -0.021 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.000 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions employment law (including pension & benefits) litigation & dispute resolution other real estate law (including construction) constant -0.002 0.007 -0.006 -0.010 0.001 -0.017 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level
barriers and drivers of diversity | 63 table 12: ols regression, modelling law firm characteristics associated with the trend proportion of bame trainees proportion of trainees recruited to the firm from the russell group in the last year (t=0) coefficient standard error -0.0005631 0.0004977 head office,city of london1 0.0082181 0.0136998 t statistic p>t [95% conf. interval] -1.13 0.6 0.265 -0.0015707 0.0004445 0.552 -0.0195157 0.035952 trend growth/decline in practicing certificate holders over the period of analysis (slope parameter) -0.0001063 0.0006058 -0.18 0.862 -0.0013327 0.0011201 number of practicing certificate holders in the firm (t=0) -0.0000269 0.000019 policy score for the firm (t=0) 0.00000649 0.000073 size difference between t=t and t=0 (absolute number) 0.0000053 0.000096 core practice area: [reference category is banking and finance law] corporate law/mergers and acquisitions -0.0052566 0.0149086 employment law (including pension & benefits) -0.010789 0.0480537 litigation & dispute resolution other -0.0088462 0.0142183 0.0040246 0.0270157 real estate law (including construction) -0.029372 0.0162483 constant 0.0404657 0.0281242 -1.41 0.09 0.06 -0.35 -0.22 -0.62 0.15 -1.81 1.44 0.165 0.93 -0.0000655 0.0000116 -0.0001413 0.0001543 0.956 -0.0001891 0.0001997 0.726 0.824 0.538 0.882 0.079 0.157 -0.0354375 0.0249243 -0.1080685 0.0864905 -0.0376295 0.0199372 -0.0506659 0.058715 -0.062265 0.0035211 -0.016215 0.0971463 1 location of head office, with greater london included in the reference category significant at the 1% level significant at the 5% level significant at the 10% level
64 | diversity league table 2017 diversity policy score questions monitoring q1: do you collect the following information q2: does your organisation have systems/ from your employees? 1. 2. 3. gender ethnicity yes / no yes / no sexual orientation yes / no 4. disability status yes / no [contributing to the scorecard with each yes=1 and therefore a total score of between 0 and 4] processes in place that can identify tangible beneﬁts of your diversity initiatives? [yes=1 no=0] q3: if yes, please give an example. [q3 for validation purposes] leadership and internal policy/strategy q4: at what level does the most senior leader/ champion for equality and diversity issues operate (please tick only one)? 1. at board/ceo level 2. at senior management level 3. the company has a hr or diversity officer below the level of a) and b) 4. we do not have a champion for equality and diversity issues q5: please give the name of that person referred to above: _____________________________ [q4 scored from 1) = 3, to 4) = 0 and q5 only asked for validation] q6: which of the following does your organisation have? (please tick all that apply) 1. 2. 3. equality and diversity policy equality and diversity strategy equality and diversity action plan – prepared, but not yet implemented 4. equality and diversity action plan – currently being implemented [q6 scored 1 for each tick] q7: please tick the following category/ categories that apply to your ﬁrm: 1. 2. 3. 4. the organisation has set out a business case for supporting diversity [tick=1 no tick=0] the organisation has set out an ethical case for supporting diversity [tick=1 no tick=0] the organisation is working on a business or ethical case for diversity [tick=1 no tick=0] the organisation feels that this is not a priority at this moment in time [tick=0 no tick=0] q8: do you have a committee (or group) that meets on a regular basis to monitor and assess performance of equality and diversity actions, against targets and goals that have been set? [yes=1, no=0] q9: does the performance review of managers include goals and targets for equality and diversity? [yes=1, no=0]
external ‘face’ q10: in relation to equality and diversity, does your organisation have publicly stated goals and aims? [yes=1 no=0] q11: if yes, please provide link to full statement [for validation] barriers and drivers of diversity | 65 q12: which one of the following equality or diversity frameworks/charters has your organisation signed up, or committed, to? please tick from the following list and add any that are not listed: • • • • law society diversity charter diversity works for london gold standard other 1: please specify…. other 2: please specify…. [q12 scored 1 for each framework/charter ticked and others listed] staff development & support q13: what % of employees receives training on some aspect of e&d at least once a year? q14: do you support [with some form of resource] the formation of employee network or support groups (engs)? 1. above 75% 2. above 50%, but no more than 75% 3. above 25%, but no more than 50% 4. above 1%, but no more than 25% 5. none [scored from 4 for highest to 0 for lowest] [yes=1 no=0] q15: please list all the engs that exist in your organisation (leave space for 6) [each listed group gets a mark and this is the kind of area where we may wish to report number of groups per 100 employees to compensate for implicit bias against small firms] recruitment, promotion and retention q16: please tick the areas of recruitment, retention and promotion where you run initiatives or programmes designed speciﬁcally to: 1. attract applicants from diverse and/or disadvantaged backgrounds, 2. retain staff from diverse and/or disadvantaged backgrounds, 3. ensure equal access to promotion opportunities for staff from diverse and/or disadvantaged backgrounds q17: for each of the above where you have provided a tick, please provide one example below _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ [q16 scored 1 for each tick and q17 for validation]
66 | diversity league table 2017 a gay woman’s perspective on diversity at work rhiannon paine is a restructuring and (gwn, lbwomen) and encourage them to get insolvency associate at milbank, the co-chair involved in networks that have critical mass. it of the gay women’s network in london and is an incredibly empowering feeling to not be the former co-chair of clifford chance’s lgbt the only woman in the room. make your female network. as a recently qualified out and proud role models visible within your firm – show that member of the lgbt community, she spoke to your firm is supportive of their careers and of us about current attitudes towards young gay their work within the lgbt community. teach and bisexual women in the legal profession. that within your firm diversity is an asset and different ways of thinking make for better law ﬁrms’ lgbt networks seem to have a brighter business. disproportionate number of male members. why do you think this is, and how do you think what do you think is the value of lgbt ﬁrms can redress the balance? employee networks? there are a multitude of reasons for this, in • meet people at work you otherwise my opinion. networks that focus solely or wouldn’t mainly on evening social alcohol-based events • gain exposure and access to client events immediately exclude families and where their even as a junior (!) venues are male (and as we know this is true • drive the diversity of your business for most of soho with the exception of perhaps • making your firm somewhere people want two bars!) don’t encourage female members. to work by helping shape culture and policy there a very few senior lb female role models in the law and it is hard and frightening to be do you know gay and bisexual women in the out and part of a network where you can’t see legal profession who remain in the closet and, support from the senior management of your if so, what reasons do they give for not coming firm. i think being a woman in the law presents out? its own challenges before a lb woman decides i know a number of women on the spectrum to come out at work – and i imagine there are a who aren’t out as anything other than number of women in the law that would rather heterosexual at work. generally they say that not confront the additional challenges that that part of themselves is ‘private’, but i think being out at work can bring. there’s some fear there too. i think many women identify as somewhere along the spectrum and redress – partner up! put your lb women bi-phobia and restrictive sexuality labels are a in touch with networks out there in the city hindrance rather than a help!
a gay woman’s perspective on diversity at work | 67 why do you think it is important to be out at work? 1. the most important reason – for you! there are a lot of conversations going on at the moment about being your ‘authentic’ self at work. and although that expression makes me squirm a bit there is a simple truth in it – the more open you are at work the more openness you receive in return and i think all of this strengthens your relationships within your team, and with clients (where appropriate…!). i know how exhausting it is to work hard at my job and work hard playing the pronoun game, squirming at how-was-your-weekend questions and avoiding team nights out. there is so much to gain from being out at work – the lgbt network of your firm holds a cross-section of seniority levels you might not otherwise have the opportunity to connect to and in that way can help you build your profile. 2. for your business – the network you build within the lgbt professional community is a massive value-add and it is easy to show your firm that when clients get interested. 3. it’s the right thing to do – inspire the are also bame face any particular challenges? as a caucasian woman i’m not sure how much undergrads and the juniors out there. if you i can say on this point. i think there are inherent can do it, they can do it too. challenges in terms of sexism and racism when a person externally presents as both female have you ever experienced homophobia from and bame and i can imagine the decision to colleagues or clients, and can you give any also publicise yourself as lgbt is an even more examples? difficult one. yes but funnily enough only when i was in the closet. as an out gay woman i have received it could be said that, in an ideal world, true a number of inappropriate questions e.g. ‘so diversity will mean there is no need for are you the man then?’ to which i try my best employee networks. do you envisage this to respond with humour (in spite of internal happening in the future? meltdown, i think those questions come out sadly, not in my lifetime. aside from the need for of lack of life experience/learning, so try to be networks in spaces that are not diverse lgbt or patient). minority friendly, networks remain safe spaces that make room for creative discussion among there’s a lot of talk these days about people who share much in common and where intersectionality. do young gay women who connections in business and life can be made.
68 | diversity league table 2017 about us the black solicitors network (bsn) is the the grange st paul’s hotel, london, is available primary voice of black solicitors in england at www.diversitylegalawards.org. and wales; committed to achieving equality of access, retention and promotion of black solicitors and those seeking to enter the profession. we have been doing this since 1995 and importantly now embrace people from a diverse range of cultures and backgrounds. creating pathways through mentoring and sponsorship programme the city branch of the black solicitors network (bsn city group) provides bsn’s mission is pursued through its many network support and professional developmental initiatives and programmes, one of which is this opportunities to a growing number of black publication, the diversity league table. some corporate/commercial lawyers practising in and of our other initiatives and events are outlined around the city of london comprised within below, which present exciting opportunities bsn’s membership. it is acknowledged that to get involved with bsn’s unique platform progress has been made across firms in recent of services which benefit its members and years in the area of recruitment of bme individuals stakeholders alike. uk diversity legal awards into the profession. however, there remains a significant under-representation of bme lawyers in the senior ranks, which is a concern. one of the the uk diversity meaningful ways in which bsn city group is legal awards was seeking to address this concern is with the launch founded in 2009 to in 2014 of its “creating pathways through showcase and mentoring and sponsorship” programme. this celebrate the excellent work being done by yearly programme provides mid-level bme city individuals, teams and organisations to lawyers with access to insights and perspectives engender greater diversity in the legal on professional development from outside their profession. it is the only industry awards which organisations. successful applicants to the focus solely on recognising and promoting programme are paired with senior city lawyers as diversity and inclusion across the legal mentors, who provide tailored mentoring and profession. entries for these awards may cover career coaching to their mentees. one, some or all aspects of diversity, including gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation and the programme pilot concluded in 2015 to disabilities. entry is free and the nomination overwhelmingly positive feedback from both deadline is 31 july 2017. further information mentors and mentees. the current cycle about the awards programme, including (2016/7) of the programme is enhanced by nominations, the awards ceremony and gala supplementing mentorship with periodic dinner event on tuesday 28 november 2017 at developmental seminars hosted in partnership
about us | 69 with city firms covering topics like maximising bsn careers impact, building resilience and the power of (bsn student members) networking. bsn has developed and regularly hosts, in conjunction with leading firms and corporates, through the creating pathways programme, interactive careers workshops for its student bsn city group hopes to accelerate positive members, which provide insights into the change in the progression of bme lawyers in the recruitment process and tailored advice city. getting on board panel event – 27 june 2017 on applying for training contracts or work placements, with measurable success. if you are interested in engaging with and recruiting from a diverse talent pool, why not host a careers “the boardrooms of britain’s leading public workshop–please contact bsn on email or visit companies do not reflect the ethnic diversity of www.blacksolicitorsnetwork.co.uk/ either the uk or the stakeholders that they seek students-trainees for further information. to encourage and represent.” sir john parker’s report into the ethnic diversity of uk boards bsn will be collaborating with accenture legal (november 2016). for the 5th year to provide summer internship opportunities for bsn student members. bsn in association with linklaters llp will be hosting a panel event to raise awareness around for more information, email board opportunities for bme professionals and firstname.lastname@example.org building a portfolio career, with particular focus bsn director (careers): paul mcfarlane on public board appointments. for further information about this event, email email@example.com. africa emerging markets panel event – september 2017 judicial diversity holding judicial office is one of the most important of public services. bsn was instrumental in setting up pre-application workshops, improvements to the judicial every year or biennially, bsn city group hosts appointments commission (jac) outreach seminars on africa emerging markets which work and the law society role play video. bsn serve to raise awareness of the importance director, cordella bart-stewart, is a member of these growth markets and thriving sectors of the judicial college panel of experts in within them. respect of the social context of judging which includes diversity and equality and works this year, bsn city group and ilfa will be towards delivery of training programs for pre partnering to bring their members a seminar and post appointment. as the profession grows, event on africa emerging markets which will be competition for appointments remains high– hosted by freshfields bruckhaus deringer in the the number of vacancies is at a high level and autumn. expected to be so for the next few years. it is important that candidates begin to prepare if you have any enquiries regarding this event or themselves early before making an application. other bsn city group initiatives/events, email firstname.lastname@example.org. for information on upcoming appointments
70 | diversity league table 2017 and on how to prepare for these, please go to the jac website at https://jac.judiciary.gov.uk. bsn north bsn north (based in manchester) was re- details of pre-application workshops including launched in april 2016 with the aim of raising free workshops for bme solicitors can be awareness of the region’s talented bme legal found on the law society website, professional community. their primary objective is to provide update or by contacting the law society’s a platform for those with an interest in equality to ethnic minority lawyers division. share and advocate equal access, retention and promotion of bme’s within the profession. bsn director (judiciary access/policy): for more information or to join bsn north, visit cordella bart-stewart. bsn and high street firms industry statistics reveal that a significant number of bme solicitors work in sole practitioner or small/high street firms. at bsn we are committed to supporting sole www.blacksolicitorsnetwork.co.uk/ regional-groups/bsn-north/, or email email@example.com. bsn north chair: kyle blackburn bsn jobs board bsn jobs board is a platform for jobs and practitioner and high street firms through career opportunities from employers who want our workshops with the solicitors regulation to reach out to a truly diverse pool of talent. authority (sra), the law society and others positions covered by bsn jobs board will on regulation, compliance and insurance and include solicitors, attorneys, barristers, trainees, provide a forum to discuss regulatory, training internships, legal and business support. and legal aid reform and related issues. for those looking for a new role, you will bsn was instrumental in the sra commissioning a report into the be able to quickly identify employers who are committed to recruiting and providing opportunities on the basis of fairness and equal disproportionate incidence of regulatory and access. for more information and to browse disciplinary action against bme solicitors. we vacancies, visit bsn jobs board at continue in a constructive dialogue with the jobs.blacksolicitorsnetwork.org. regulator, seeking implementation of measures which promote diversity in the profession if you are an employer or recruitment agency, and fairness in decision making on regulation. please get in touch to ensure your opportunities training and access into the profession, as well are on the bsn jobs board. please do contact as support for practices suffering cuts to legal us if you have any queries regarding this service aid and increased regulation remain areas of platform: firstname.lastname@example.org. concern, and bsn is at the table at the law society as the profession grapples with these to join bsn as a member or for more issues. bsn directors: joe mensah-dankwah & stephen friday (treasurer) information on bsn, please visit www. blacksolicitorsnetwork.co.uk or email us at email@example.com. paulette mastin chair, black solicitors network
the uk diversity legal awards are the only industry awards which focus solely on recognising, promoting and celebrating equality, diversity and inclusion across the legal profession the winners of the uk diversity legal awards 2017 will be announced at a prestigious ceremony to celebrate their acheivements, share best practice and champion diversity and inclusion throughout the legal profession tuesday 28th november 2017 6:15pm - 12am at grange st paul’s hotel 10 godliman street london ec4v 5aj ceremony opening paul philip chief executive of the solicitors regulation authority solicitors regulation authority speakers include president of the law society awards presented by reeta chakrabarti bbc news chairman of the bar presenter/correspondent reserve your place for the awards ceremony, dinner and ball by visiting www.diversitylegalawards.org entry deadline 31 july 2017 st #diversitylegal headline sponsor associate sponsor event supporters the uk diversity legal awards is an initiative of: for general information including updates and table bookings please visit www.diversitylegalawards.org or email: firstname.lastname@example.org